Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Abscess, Larynx


Related Terms

  • Neck Space Infection
  • Voice Box Infection

Differential Diagnosis

  • Cancer of the larynx
  • Granulomatous disease
  • Tumor of the larynx

Specialists

  • Otolaryngologist

Comorbid Conditions

Factors Influencing Duration

Length of disability may be influenced by the extent of the infection, severity of the symptoms, method of treatment, response to treatment, or the development of complications.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
478.79 - Abscess, Larynx

Overview

An abscess of the larynx (the voice box, located where the back of the throat connects to the top of the trachea) is a collection of pus formed as the result of an infection. The pus is composed of destroyed (necrotic) tissue cells, living and dead white blood cells (leukocytes) brought to the area to fight the infection, body fluids, and both dead and live microorganisms. Abscesses occur when the body walls off a small area of infection to keep it from spreading.

A larynx abscess may be associated with inflammation of the supportive membranes of the larynx (perichondritis), cancer, previous injury to the larynx that occurred when instruments were used to establish an airway, or a pre-existing abnormal air sac connected to the larynx (laryngocele).

An abscess of the larynx is a serious and potentially lethal condition that requires emergency treatment.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Diagnosis

History: The individual may complain of hoarseness, fever, throat dryness, and difficulty or pain in swallowing (dysphagia). Swelling at the site may interfere with breathing. Coughing may occur.

Physical exam: The neck and external throat area may be swollen and tender to the touch (palpation). The examiner will try to elicit the individual's gag and swallowing reflexes; these may be diminished or absent because of swelling. The examiner may hear a high-pitched, whistling sound when the individual breathes (stridor). Inspection of the larynx using a mirror held against the back roof of the mouth (indirect laryngoscopy) may reveal redness and swelling of the larynx.

Tests: A viewing instrument (laryngoscope) may be passed down the throat or nose in order to view the larynx directly (direct laryngoscopy) or to take a biopsy for microscopic analysis. The presence of an abscess is confirmed by removing pus from the larynx by suction (aspiration) and culturing it to identify the organism causing the infection. X-ray, CT scan, or MRI may be done to assess the extent of the condition or to rule out a tumor.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Treatment

Treatment consists of antibiotics given intravenously (IV). Even with antibiotic therapy, the abscess may need to be surgically drained (incision and drainage procedure) using a scope (laryngoscopy); this will provide an escape route for the pus. In severe cases with a large formation of abnormal tissue around the abscess (granuloma formation), reducing the size of this enlargement (debulking) is done with a laser. If respiratory distress occurs, it may be necessary to perform an immediate surgical incision into the windpipe (tracheostomy) in order to establish an airway.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Prognosis

Complete recovery is expected with appropriate antibiotic and possible surgical treatment. Without prompt treatment, an abscess on the larynx can be a serious condition and may result in death.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Complications

Complications include respiratory distress due to tissue swelling in the trachea (windpipe) or spread of the infection into adjacent structures.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

Work restrictions or accommodations are not usually associated with this procedure. Individuals may have to limit using their voices excessively (public speakers, singers, telephone operator, telemarketer, receptionist) while recovering from surgery.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Failure to Recover

If an individual fails to recover within the expected maximum duration period, the reader may wish to consider the following questions to better understand the specifics of an individual's medical case.

Regarding diagnosis:

  • Was fiber-optic laryngoscopy or biopsy done to rule out other conditions with similar symptoms?
  • Was a tumor ruled out? Was pneumonia ruled out?
  • Has individual recently used any alternative medication or health practices?
  • Was microscopic examination done to identify causative organism?
  • Was x-ray or CT/MRI performed to assess extent of abscess?
  • Has infection spread to adjacent structures? Is there lymph node involvement?
  • Was abscess of larynx confirmed?

Regarding treatment:

  • Was laboratory analysis of pus used to select the most effective antibiotic?
  • Has individual responded to treatment?
  • Are systemic antibiotics being used? IV or oral?
  • Is there a possibility of antibiotic-resistant bacteria? Is change of antibiotic warranted?
  • Was incision and drainage required? Debulking?
  • Was tracheostomy necessary? Was individual compliant with care and hygiene of tracheostomy site?

Regarding prognosis:

  • Did individual receive prompt, appropriate treatment?
  • Was recovery delayed as a result of incision and drainage, tracheostomy, or laser debulking?
  • What is the overall health of individual? How does this affect recovery?
  • Does individual have an underlying condition that may affect recovery?

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

General

Levy, David, ed. "Abscess." MedlinePlus. Ed. David Levy. 16 Jul. 2004. National Library of Medicine. 19 May 2005 <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001353.htm.>.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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