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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Alcohol and Drug Detoxification and Rehabilitation


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Overview

Alcohol and drug detoxification and rehabilitation is a medically supervised process of helping individuals through the withdrawal from an abused substance.

In situations where individuals have developed a physiological dependency on drugs of abuse such as alcohol, benzodiazepines, and opiates, a sudden withdrawal of the drug of abuse can lead to life-threatening symptoms. In these cases, medically supervised withdrawal is recommended. This process is sometimes referred to as a detoxification (detox) program and can last for a few days (alcohol or heroin) to a few weeks (benzodiazepines). The individual does not need to be hospitalized or confined for the entire period, but does require some clinical supervision to monitor use of medications and possible side-effects from either the medications or the substance withdrawal. Some individuals may be admitted to a hospital or a specialized alcohol detoxification unit for the first few days of treatment, while others may be treated on an outpatient basis.

Treatment during the acute, or detoxification, phase requires close observation for at least 72 to 96 hours for the emergence of withdrawal symptoms. About one-third to one-half of individuals need medication therapy in the acute phase. This may include the use of benzodiazepines to decrease tremors and reduce or prevent increased blood pressure and heart rate, plus medications as needed for other symptoms, such as diarrhea or muscle aches. Folic acid, thiamin, and vitamin B12 are used to replenish vitamin deficiencies

In the outpatient treatment of individuals with mild to moderate alcohol withdrawal symptoms, a suitable option to a benzodiazepine is carbamazepine. Other medications including haloperidol, beta blockers, clonidine, and phenytoin may be used in addition to a benzodiazepine if indicated. Some research suggests that administering mirtazapine in addition to the standard treatment protocol helps the detoxification process by reducing physical and mental discomfort.

Treatment in the first month of abstinence and early remission phases may include education on physical, emotional, and mental aspects of addiction and recovery, identification of stressors and stress management skills, improvement of coping skills, assertiveness training, and relaxation training. A narcotic antagonist such as naltrexone, which diminishes the effects of alcohol, or the drug disulfiram, which causes an individual to be intolerant of alcohol, can be used to help some individuals remain abstinent. Although not yet approved by the FDA, the use of acamprosate, sometimes in combination with cognitive behavior therapy, for the treatment of alcohol addiction has proved very promising in clinical trials.

In addition to professional treatment, many individuals are referred to self-help groups like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) or Narcotics Anonymous (NA). The long-term support that self-help groups provide can be crucial in preventing relapse. An alternative to AA is Rational Recovery, a self-help group based on cognitive rather than spiritual principles.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor