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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Amphetamine Dependence/Abuse


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Overview

Amphetamines are potent central nervous system stimulants and include drugs such as amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine (speed), and various appetite suppressants and decongestants. Although it is a central nervous system stimulant, Ritalin (methylphenidate) is chemically different from a true amphetamine; it is less potent than most amphetamines, but more potent than caffeine.

Amphetamine use releases the brain chemical dopamine, which stimulates brain cells, enhancing mood and movement. It may also damage brain cells that contain dopamine and another nerve chemical (neurotransmitter) called serotonin. Over time, levels of dopamine decrease. This may cause stiffness, tremor, and other symptoms similar to those in Parkinson's disease.

As with any addiction process, abuse and dependence are defined by continued use in the face of negative consequences. These consequences may fall into one or more of the following areas: physical and psychological health, occupational functioning, legal problems, interpersonal relationships, and financial affairs. A useful definition of dependence is loss of control over when and how much of the substance is used. The diagnosis of abuse is made when the use of the substance is recurrent despite adverse consequences to the person. The diagnosis of amphetamine abuse and dependence is based on criteria listed in the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision). Amphetamine dependence occurs when an individual uses one or more of the amphetamine substances in a maladaptive way resulting in at least three of the following symptoms: a need for increased amounts of amphetamines to achieve the desired subjective effect (tolerance); the presence of withdrawal symptoms such as depression, fatigue, insomnia or hypersomnia, increased appetite, or agitation; using amphetamines in larger amounts or for longer duration; a persistent, unsuccessful attempt to control use of the substance; increased amount of time spent using or obtaining amphetamines; giving up important activities in deference to the use of amphetamines; and continued amphetamine use despite related physical, emotional, occupational, legal, or relational difficulties.

These substances can be taken orally, inhaled through the nose, smoked, or injected intravenously. The effects may appear in 30 to 40 minutes and last for 4 to 8 hours. Amphetamine use may result in feelings of being high or elated (euphoria), talkativeness, hyperactivity, restlessness, heightened awareness of threatening or other stimuli (hypervigilance), anxiety, tension, grandiosity, anger, and impaired judgment. Other effects may include decreased appetite, more rapid breathing, increased heart rate and blood pressure, fever (hyperthermia), confusion, tremors, seizures, suspiciousness (paranoia), and aggressive behavior.

Many individuals begin use of amphetamines to lose weight while others use amphetamines for some types of inadvertent self-medication or for recreational purposes. MDMA, a methamphetamine-based recreational stimulant popularly called ecstasy, generates effects lasting 3 to 6 hours. It's often used as a "club drug" by dancers seeking the sense of rapture, excitement, and social disinhibition it produces.

Smoked or injected amphetamine more commonly leads to dependence than does the oral form. Individuals who have used daily for 8 to 10 years tend to decrease or stop use because of adverse side effects such as depression, sleep disturbances, malnutrition, or cardiovascular complications including chronic chest pain or irregular heart rate.

As methamphetamine can be easily manufactured illegally from store-bought materials, it is the most prevalent synthetic drug manufactured in the US ("Methamphetamine").

Incidence and Prevalence: In 2002, more than 10 million people had tried MDMA (ecstasy - the most potent form of methamphetamine) at least once in their lifetime (Volkow), an increase from the 6.4 million reporting use in 2000. The number of current users in 2002 was estimated to be 676,000. The initiation of ecstasy use in the US has been rising steadily since 1992, with 1.8 million new users in 2001 ("MDMA Abuse").

Source: Medical Disability Advisor