Sign-in
(your email):
(case sensitive):



 
 

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Stimulant-Related Disorders (Amphetamine-Type Substance)


Text Only Home | Graphic-Rich Site | Overview | Risk and Causation | Diagnosis | Treatment | Prognosis | Differential Diagnosis | Specialists | Comorbid Conditions | Complications | Factors Influencing Duration | Length of Disability | Ability to Work | Maximum Medical Improvement | Failure to Recover | Medical Codes | References

Overview

Amphetamines are potent central nervous system stimulants and include drugs such as amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine (speed), and various appetite suppressants and decongestants. Although it is a central nervous system stimulant, methylphenidate (Ritalin) is chemically different from a true amphetamine; it is less potent than most amphetamines but more potent than caffeine.

Amphetamine use releases the brain chemical dopamine, which stimulates brain cells, enhancing mood and movement. It may also damage brain cells that contain dopamine and another nerve chemical (neurotransmitter) called serotonin. Over time, levels of dopamine decrease. This may cause stiffness, tremor, and other symptoms similar to those in Parkinson's disease.

As with any addiction process, abuse and dependence are defined by continued use in the face of negative consequences. These consequences may fall into one or more of the following areas: physical and psychological health, occupational functioning, legal problems, interpersonal relationships, and financial affairs. A useful definition of dependence is loss of control over when and how much of the substance is used. The diagnosis of abuse is made when the use of the substance is recurrent despite adverse consequences to the person. The diagnosis of amphetamine abuse and dependence is based on criteria listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR).

These substances can be taken orally, inhaled through the nose, smoked, or injected intravenously. The effects may appear in 30 to 40 minutes and last for 4 to 8 hours. Amphetamine use may result in feelings of being high or elated (euphoria), talkativeness, hyperactivity, restlessness, heightened awareness of threatening or other stimuli (hypervigilance), anxiety, tension, grandiosity, anger, and impaired judgment. Other effects may include decreased appetite, more rapid breathing (tachypnea), increased heart rate (tachycardia) and blood pressure (hypertension), fever (hyperthermia), confusion, tremors, seizures, suspiciousness (paranoia), and aggressive behavior.

Many individuals begin use of amphetamines to lose weight, while others use amphetamines for some types of inadvertent self-medication or for recreational purposes; some students use amphetamines as a study aid. MDMA, a methamphetamine-based recreational stimulant popularly called ecstasy (the most potent form of methamphetamine), generates effects lasting 3 to 6 hours. MDMA is often used as a "club drug" by dancers seeking the sense of rapture, excitement, and social dis-inhibition it produces.

Smoked or injected amphetamine more commonly leads to dependence than does the oral form. Individuals who have used daily for 8 to 10 years tend to decrease or stop use because of adverse side effects such as depression, sleep disturbances, malnutrition, or cardiovascular complications, including chronic chest pain or irregular heart rate.

As methamphetamine can be easily manufactured illegally from store-bought materials, it is the most prevalent synthetic drug manufactured in the US.

Note: For the substance/medication-induced disorders approach established by the DSM-IV-TR, and the DSM-5, please see the following topics: Substance/Medication-Induced Anxiety Disorder, Substance/Medication-Induced Bipolar and Related Disorder, Substance/Medication-Induced Depressive Disorder, Substance/Medication-Induced Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder, Substance/Medication-Induced Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorder, Substance/Medication-Induced Psychotic Disorder, Substance/Medication-Induced Sexual Dysfunction, and Substance/Medication-Induced Sleep Disorder.

Incidence and Prevalence: The initiation of MDMA use in the US has been rising steadily since 1992, with 1.8 million new users in 2001. The number of users in 2002 was estimated to be 676,000. In 2004, more than 11 million people had tried MDMA at least once in their lifetime (Volkow), an increase from the 6.4 million reporting use in 2000.

According to the DSM-5, the estimated 12-month prevalence of amphetamine-type stimulant use disorder in the US is 0.2% among individuals 12 years and older. Rates are similar among adults of both sexes (0.2%); however, among 12- to 17-year-olds, the rate is greater for females (0.3%) than for males (0.1%). Intravenous stimulant use is greater among males (male-to-female ratio of 3:1 or 4:1), but rates are more balanced among non-injecting users (males represent 54% of primary treatment admissions). Twelve-month prevalence is greater among younger individuals. For 12- to 17-year-olds, rates are highest among whites and African Americans (0.3%), followed by Hispanics (0.1%) and Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (0.01%); amphetamine-type stimulant use disorder is almost absent among Native Americans of this age. Among adults, rates are highest among Native Americans and Alaska Natives (0.6%), followed by whites (0.2%) and Hispanics (0.2%); amphetamine-type stimulant use disorder is almost absent among African Americans and Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders of this age. Past-year non-prescribed use of prescription stimulants occurred among 5%-9% of children through high school; 5%-35% of college-age persons report past-year use.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor