|In any anemia, the cause of the anemia, its severity, and rapidity of its development determine the outcome. The age of the patient and the presence of comorbid conditions such as heart, lung, kidney, or liver disease may also significantly influence outcome.|
Outcome of anemia due to blood loss depends on the source of the bleeding, severity of the loss, and response to treatment. If the source of bleeding is identified and corrected, acute anemia due to massive blood loss can be successfully treated with transfused blood. Chronic anemia due to a small but ongoing blood loss, such as in gastrointestinal bleeding, responds to correction of the bleeding without the need for transfusion if the source of bleeding is identified before blood loss is significant.
Anemia caused by dietary deficiencies usually can be corrected by replacement therapy, and improvement may be seen within weeks or months. Neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by pernicious anemia may take up to a year or more to show improvement. The symptoms may not resolve completely, but with ongoing treatment they typically do not progress.
Individuals with severe lifelong, hereditary anemias (e.g., sickle cell anemia, thalassemia) have a shortened life expectancy. Without a bone marrow transplant, severe forms of these anemias often result in death in the second or third decade of life (Conrad).
Source: Medical Disability Advisor