Sign-in
(your email):
(case sensitive):



 
 

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Arthropathy


Text Only Home | Graphic-Rich Site | Overview | Risk and Causation | Diagnosis | Treatment | Prognosis | Differential Diagnosis | Specialists | Rehabilitation | Comorbid Conditions | Complications | Factors Influencing Duration | Length of Disability | Ability to Work | Maximum Medical Improvement | Failure to Recover | Medical Codes | References

Overview

Arthropathy is a collective term for any disease of the joints. The disease may be localized to one joint, as with post-traumatic arthritis, or may affect multiple joints, as with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. It may also be due to an underlying condition such as a bacterial infection (infectious, pyogenic, or septic arthritis). Neuropathic arthropathy refers to bone and joint changes that develop secondary to loss of sensation associated with various disorders, including diabetes, trauma, infection, pernicious anemia, spina bifida, or amyloidosis. Arthropathy is frequently associated with articular trauma, joint slippage (subluxation) and instability, or degenerative changes of the joint. The most common form of arthropathy is osteoarthritis, in which there is progressive loss of articular joint cartilage with reactive changes at the joint margins and subchondral bone, resulting in joint degeneration.

In fully developed arthropathy, joint degeneration is accompanied by enlargement of the joint from swelling caused by synovial fluid joint effusion, and the development of bony overgrowth at the joint margins (osteophyte formation). Eventually, joint deformity increases as microfractures, ligamentous looseness (laxity), and decreased muscular support occur. Increased joint laxity and periarticular fractures may also result in small pieces of bone or cartilage (loose bodies) that fragment into the joint. This may result in a grating or grinding noise when the joint is moved (crepitus), although crepitus also may be secondary to other causes.

Arthropathy may be the result of degenerative joint diseases such as facet joint arthropathy or knee osteoarthritis; bleeding into a joint (intra-articular hemorrhage) from trauma or hemophilia; neuropathic arthropathy secondary to diabetes (Charcot joint) or to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; inflammatory joint disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and polymyalgia rheumatica; inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease; autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus; septic disorders such as osteomyelitis and septic arthritis caused by bacterial or fungal infections; and crystal-depositing disorders such as gout or pseudogout.

Degenerative arthropathy may occur as the result of a single trauma to the joint, such as an acute shoulder dislocation or as the result of a healed fracture that occurred in or around the joint (intra-articular or periarticular fracture), in which case it is called post-traumatic arthritis. Degenerative arthropathy can also occur secondary to malunion of a nearby fracture that results in altered biomechanics of the joint.

Neuropathic arthropathy is the rapid degeneration of joints due to a loss of sensation associated with certain diseases, resulting in impaired position sense and pain perception. Although the exact pathophysiology of neuropathic arthropathy is not known, joint degeneration appears to develop when the individual who has lost deep sensation is unable to feel multiple small episodes of joint trauma that occur with certain conditions, and because of inadequate fine motor control which creates abnormal pressures on joints. Among conditions that are most likely to result in neuropathic arthropathy are diabetes mellitus with diabetic neuropathy, syringomyelia, spinal cord and peripheral nerve tumors, and Charcot-Marie Tooth disease. Almost any joint may be affected by neuropathic arthropathy, depending upon the underlying disease, but the knee joint is involved most frequently. Usually one to three joints are affected, normally in an asymmetrical distribution.

Gout and other crystal-associated arthropathies are caused by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU), calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD), calcium apatite, or calcium oxalate crystals, inducing acute or chronic osteoarthritis or periarthritis. MSU (gout) and CPPD (pseudogout) crystal deposition may also lead to degenerative arthropathy via repeated, intermittent attacks of acute arthritis. This frequently occurs in large, peripheral joints, particularly in the lower extremity.

Joint damage resulting in arthropathy may occur from the inflammatory reaction of infectious arthritis. The joint may become infected via surgery, injection, animal or even insect bite, trauma, abscess, osteomyelitis, or sepsis.

Individuals with diabetes or any underlying degenerative joint conditions are more likely to develop arthropathy.

Incidence and Prevalence: The exact incidence of multiple arthropathies is not known because occurrence of arthropathy is so often secondary to an underlying disease. Osteoarthritis affects over 20 million individuals in the US and is the most common articular disease worldwide (Lozada). The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis is 1% in US and global populations (Smith). The overall incidence of neuropathic arthropathy is not known, but neuropathic arthropathy associated with diabetes is estimated at 15% of diabetic patients in the US and worldwide (Khan).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor