Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Back Pain


Related Terms

  • Backache

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
724.1 - Thoracic Spine Pain
724.2 - Lumbago; Low Back Pain; Low Back Syndrome; Lumbalgia

Overview

Backache or back pain is a common symptom and affects up to 85% of individuals in their lifetime ("Back Pain"). In most cases (80%), there is no clear diagnosis or anatomic finding to account for the pain (Perina). By contrast to general back pain, low back pain often has specific causes: 70% of cases by simple strains and sprains; 10% by age-related changes; 4% by disc herniations; another 4% by compression fractures from osteoporosis; and 3% from narrowing (stenosis) around the spinal nerve roots (Hills).

In most cases, general back pain is of non life-threatening (benign) mechanical origins. However, spinal complaints may also involve disease such as tumor (rare); be caused by a fracture; be referred from the shoulder, hip, or internal organs (e.g., appendix, kidneys, bladder, ovaries); or represent physical manifestations of a psychiatric or emotional disorder.

See Low Back Pain, Thoracic Spine Pain, and Intervertebral Disc Disorders for additional information.

Incidence and Prevalence: Overall, 4 out of 5 people (80%) will experience nonspecific back pain during their lifetime, 15% to 20% will experience prolonged periods of pain, and up to 8% will have chronic pain (Wheeler). Nearly half will have at least one recurrence (Fraser).

The incidence of back pain is highest for those aged 30 to 50 (Perina, Wheeler). Annual incidence of low back pain in the general population is 18.4% (Jacob). In a group of outpatient veterans, three-year incidence of new low back pain was 67% (Jarvik).

Annual incidence of temporary disability from back pain is 3% to 4%, with 1% of the workforce developing permanent disability (Wheeler).

In Europe, yearly prevalence of low back pain is 25% to 45% (Wheeler).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Causation and Known Risk Factors

Risk factors that increase the likelihood of back pain include aging, poor general health, physically demanding occupations, participation in sports that involve twisting the back, a sedentary lifestyle that includes lack of participation in sports activities or regular exercise, previous back injury, depression, pregnancy, smoking, obesity, poor posture, and bone or joint disease, including infectious disease.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

Cited

"Back Pain." Neurology Channel. Healthcommunities.com. 14 Jul. 2009 <http://www.neurologychannel.com/backpain/index.shtml>.

Fraser, William R. "Back Pain." eMedicine Health. Eds. Scott Plantz, Francisco Talavera, and Anthony Anker. 20 Sep. 2005. WebMD, LLC. 11 Aug. 2009 <http://www.emedicinehealth.com/back_pain/article_em.htm >.

Hills, Everett C. "Mechanical Low Back Pain." eMedicine. Eds. J. Michael Wieting, et al. 21 May. 2009. Medscape. 14 Jul. 2009 <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/310353-overview>.

Jacobs, T. "Low Back Pain Incident Episodes: A Community-based Study." Spine Journal 6 3 (2006): 306-310. PubMed. <PMID: 16651225>.

Jarvik, J. G., et al. "Three-year Incidence of Low Back Pain in an Initially Asymptomatic Cohort: Clinical and Imaging Findings." Spine 30 13 (2005): 1541-1548. PubMed. <PMID: 15990670>.

Perina, Debra G. "Back Pain, Mechanical." eMedicine. Eds. Edward Bessman, et al. 16 Jul. 2009. Medscape. 11 Aug. 2009 <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/822462-overview>.

Wheeler, Anthony H. "Pathophysiology of Chronic Back Pain." eMedicine. Eds. Michael J. Schneck, et al. 30 Jun. 2009. Medscape. 14 Jul. 2009 <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1144130-overview>.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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