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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Baker's Cyst


Text Only Home | Graphic-Rich Site | Overview | Diagnosis | Treatment | Prognosis | Differential Diagnosis | Specialists | Comorbid Conditions | Complications | Factors Influencing Duration | Length of Disability | Ability to Work | Failure to Recover | Medical Codes | References

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
727.51 - Synovial Cyst of Popliteal Space; Bakers Cyst (Knee)

Related Terms

  • Popliteal Cyst

Overview

Image Description:
Baker's Cyst (Popliteal Cyst) - A profile of the right leg highlights the popliteal fossa behind the knee. A close-up of the area shows the popliteal artery and vein and tibial nerve that pass through the center of the leg behind the knee, the common perineal nerve toward the outer surface of the leg, and a popliteal cyst or Baker's cyst within a swollen bursa, a fluid-filled sac in the popliteal space behind the knee.
Click to see Image

A Baker's cyst is a swelling of one of the two fluid-filled sacs (anatomic bursae) located behind the knee (popliteal space). Because these two bursae communicate with the knee joint, increased synovial fluid in the knee (resulting from inflammation) can cause the bursae to enlarge and form a Baker's cyst. The Baker's cyst usually affects only one knee.

In adults, 50% of Baker's cysts are associated with knee joint damage, particularly a torn cartilage (meniscus). Other risk factors for Baker's cysts include rheumatoid arthritis and thrombophlebitis.

Incidence and Prevalence: Approximately 50% of Baker's cysts occur in adults; the remainder occurs in children.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Diagnosis

History: Individuals may report pain on the back (posterior) side of the knee. Swelling may be present. Most individuals have no history of knee injury. If the cyst formed secondary to a torn meniscus and resulting knee effusion (swelling), there would be a history of injury.

Physical exam: The exam may reveal swelling behind the knee. This swollen area is often painful to the touch (palpation). In more obese patients, even fairly large cysts may not be palpable.

Tests: X-rays of the knee joint may show some soft tissue swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging is very useful in evaluating both the cyst and any intra-articular pathology, like a torn meniscus, that may be the primary cause of the cyst.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Treatment

Conservative treatment with rest is often all that is necessary. Corticosteroid medication, injected into the cyst or into the knee, often reduces the size of the cyst and relieves associated symptoms. Surgery is indicated in individuals for cysts unresponsive to injection.

Surgical treatment of associated joint pathology, such as meniscectomy for a torn meniscus, may relieve the symptoms without cyst removal. However, if the cyst is secondary to intra-articular pathology, removal of the cyst without treatment of the underlying joint pathology often results in recurrence.

Two similar surgical procedures, the Hughston, Baker, and Mello procedure and the Meyerding and Van Demark procedure, are commonly used to remove (excise) Baker's cysts. The procedures differ primarily in the position of the incision. Both procedures allow joint exposure for additional repairs.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Prognosis

The prognosis is determined by the type and severity of injury or disease in the knee joint. Some individuals may respond to injection alone. Surgical repair with either procedure provides good results with complete recovery.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Differential Diagnosis

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Specialists

  • Orthopedic (Orthopaedic) Surgeon
  • Rheumatologist

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Comorbid Conditions

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Complications

A Baker's cyst may be complicated by thrombophlebitis and associated knee joint pathology such as a torn meniscus.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Factors Influencing Duration

Factors influencing the length of disability may include type of treatment, surgical complications, and the individual's job requirements.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

Individuals with severe knee pain and swelling whose job requires prolonged standing may need temporary transfer to nonstanding duties. Individuals may need to limit squatting, kneeling, and crawling. If surgery is necessary, temporarily limited weight-bearing may be prescribed and the individual may need to use crutches postoperatively.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Failure to Recover

If an individual fails to recover within the expected maximum duration period, the reader may wish to consider the following questions to better understand the specifics of an individual's medical case.

Regarding diagnosis:

  • Does individual have any risk factors for a Baker's cyst?
  • Does individual have knee pain or swelling?
  • Has individual received adequate diagnostic testing to establish the diagnosis?
  • Were conditions with similar symptoms such as meniscal tear ruled out?

Regarding treatment:

  • Did individual respond favorably to conservative treatment? Were injections effective?
  • Was surgery necessary?

Regarding prognosis:

  • Does individual have any conditions that may affect recovery?
  • Have any complications developed?

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

General

Stein, Meryl, and Darren Rosenberg. "Baker's Cyst." Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Ed. Walter R. Frontera. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus, Inc., 2002. 308-310.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor