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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Brachial Neuropathy


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Overview

Acute brachial plexus neuritis is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology that is easily confused with other neck and upper extremity abnormalities, such as cervical spondylosis and cervical radiculopathy. The brachial plexus is a bundle of nerves that travels from the spinal cord to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial neuritis (BN) is a form of peripheral neuropathy, a disease typically characterized by pain or loss of function in the nerves that carry signals to and from the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system) to and from other parts of the body (peripheral nerves).

Individuals with acute BN present with a characteristic pattern of acute or subacute onset of pain, followed by profound weakness of the upper arm and amyotrophic (muscle wasting) changes affecting the shoulder girdle and upper extremity (Miller).

Brachial neuritis is also commonly referred to as Parsonage-Turner syndrome or brachial plexus neuropathy. When acute BN occurs, the damage to the brachial nerves comes on suddenly and unexpectedly on its own, without being related to any other injury or physical condition; it is characterized by sharp, severe pain in the nerves of the brachial plexus, followed by weakness or numbness in the upper extremity. The cause of acute BN is unknown.

BN should be differentiated from brachial plexus injury, which is caused by a specific injury such as trauma or tumors. Examples include a knife laceration or in babies where a stretch injury to the brachial plexus occurs when they pass through the birth canal during labor. BN should also be differentiated from an inherited form of BN that is linked to mutations in a specific gene (SEPT9 on chromosome 17q). This gene is involved in skeleton formation, but it is not known how mutations contribute to BN. Onset occurring during childhood is indicative of inherited BN.

Finally, the differential diagnosis for BN should include toxic etiologies that are not as common as hereditary, metabolic, or inflammatory causes. Drug-related causes for toxic neuropathies are among the most common of toxic etiologies and may include antibiotics (chloramphenicol), diptheria or tetanus toxin, cisplatin or pyridoxine, or the use of recreational drugs. Toxic neuropathy associated with drug abuse may be difficult to confirm and is often discovered as a result of overdose emergencies. Neuropathy in drug abuse may develop days or weeks after the suspected abuse. Progressive neuropathies occurring as a result of exposure to industrial agents (e.g., chemical solvents and heavy metals, including acrylamide, arsenic, ethylene oxide, lead, mercury, perchloroethylene, styrene, toluene, and others) may produce symptoms slowly after limited or long-term exposure. In any suspected toxic neuropathy, the exact cause may not be uncovered (Rutchik).

Incidence and Prevalence: In the United States each year, there are approximately 1 to 2 cases of BN per 100,000 person-years (Ashworth).

Although BN is reported to occur around the world, not all countries report incidence rates. Incidence is reported to be 3 cases per 100,000 population in the UK (Ashworth).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor