Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Brachial Neuropathy


Related Terms

  • BN
  • Brachial Neuritis
  • Brachial Plexopathy
  • Brachial Plexus Dysfunction
  • Brachial Plexus Neuropathy
  • Neuralgic Amyotrophy
  • Parsonage-Turner Syndrome

Differential Diagnosis

Specialists

  • Anesthesiologist
  • Neurologist
  • Neurosurgeon
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Orthopedic (Orthopaedic) Surgeon
  • Physiatrist (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Specialist)
  • Physical Therapist
  • Radiologist

Comorbid Conditions

  • Autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, lupus)
  • Cancer
  • Heroin, or other drug addiction
  • Obesity
  • Other injuries

Factors Influencing Duration

The length of disability may be increased by any of the following factors: the individual's need for full use of the involved arm, protracted pain with shoulder or arm motion, or residual muscle weakness. Conversely, the length of disability may be decreased if the individual is not in pain and has enough residual function in the unaffected arm for normal duties.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
353.0 - Brachial Plexus Lesions; Cervical Rib Syndrome; Costoclavicular Syndrome; Scalenus Anticus Syndrome; Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
723.4 - Brachial Neuritis or Radiculitis NOS; Cervical Radiculitis; Radicular Syndrome of Upper Limbs
953.4 - Injury to Nerve Roots and Spinal Plexus; Brachial Plexus Injury

Overview

Brachial neuritis (BN), or brachial neuropathy, is an inflammation of the nerves (neuritis) in the shoulder area. Nerve involvement in BN varies, but the lower motor neurons of a nerve complex in the neck and under the arm, called the brachial plexus, are primarily affected. Although the pain usually occurs in the right shoulder, 10% to 30% of the time it is bilateral (Ashworth). Pain is constant, intense, unrelieved by rest, and worsens at night. The intense phase of the pain may last from a few hours to several weeks, but some low-grade pain may continue for several months.

Whether or not the pain subsides, numbness and muscle weakness in the arm and shoulder usually follow within 3 to 10 days. The individual may experience shoulder paralysis and lose the use of that arm.

In some cases the exact cause may not be known (idiopathic brachial neuritis), but the condition may stem from an autoimmune reaction in which the body's own defenses are turned against the brachial plexus. Brachial neuropathy may follow traumatic injury to the brachial plexus, such as falling off a ladder, jerking the arm, and suffering gunshot and stab wounds. Other causes are a tumor pressing down on the nerves and radiation therapy for cancer. Brachial neuropathy occasionally follows surgery (when the individual was in the prone position), viral infections, cervical nerve blocks, or injections of serum, vaccines, or antibiotics. Acute brachial neuropathy (also known as acute brachial radiculitis and Parsonage-Turner syndrome) has been diagnosed in individuals with a history of previous infection and fever.

Rarely, BN occurs in an apparently healthy individual. For no apparent reason, the individual suddenly experiences severe shoulder pain, followed by shoulder paralysis and loss of use of an arm.

An inherited form of BN is linked to mutations in a specific gene (SEPT9 on chromosome 17q). This gene is involved in skeleton formation, but it is not known how mutations contribute to brachial neuropathy. Onset occurring during childhood is indicative of inherited brachial neuropathy.

Toxic etiologies for neuropathies such as brachial neuropathy are not as common as hereditary, metabolic, or inflammatory causes. Drug-related causes for toxic neuropathies are among the most common of toxic etiologies and may include antibiotics, diptheria or tetanus toxin, chloramphenicol, cisplatin or pyridoxine, or the use of recreational drugs. Toxic neuropathy associated with drug abuse may be difficult to confirm and is often discovered as a result of overdose emergencies. Neuropathy in drug abuse may develop days or weeks after the suspected abuse. Progressive neuropathies occurring as a result of exposure to industrial agents (e.g., chemical solvents and heavy metals, including acrylamide, arsenic, ethylene oxide, lead, mercury, perchloroethylene, styrene, toluene, and others) may produce symptoms slowly after limited or long-term exposure. In any suspected toxic neuropathy, the exact cause may not be uncovered (Rutchik).

Incidence and Prevalence: In the United States each year, there are approximately 1 to 2 cases per 100,000 person-years (Ashworth).
Although brachial neuropathy is reported to occur around the world, not all countries report incidence rates. Incidence is reported to be 3 cases per 100,000 population in the UK (Ashworth).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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