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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Cancer, Lung


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Overview

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. It is also called carcinoma of the lung and refers to an abnormal growth within the lung tissue and the airways of the lungs (trachea and bronchi or tracheobronchial tree). Most lung cancers arise from the bronchial tree and are referred to as bronchogenic carcinomas.

Estimates are the United States had 1,600,000 new cases and 1,380,000 deaths from lung cancer in 2012 (Siegel).

Lung cancer is classified into two major types according to the type of cell present in the tumor. These are small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). SCLC (oat cell carcinoma, small cell undifferentiated carcinoma) is almost always caused by smoking, and accounts for about 10% to 15% of all new lung cancer cases ("Detailed Guide"). Typically, SCLC metastasizes into the brain, bone, bone marrow, liver, and / or lymph nodes.

NSCLC accounts for the remaining 85% of lung cancers, and can be further divided into three subtypes of cancer: Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma ("Detailed Guide"). The majority of NSCLC cases are also associated with smoking. NSCLC generally has a better prognosis than SCLC.

Other tumors may occur in the lung in addition to the two main types of lung cancer. Carcinoid tumors of the lung are slow-growing tumors that can be cured surgically, and account for less than 5% of lung tumors ("Detailed Guide"). Rarely, noncancerous (benign) tumors may also occur.

It is important to note that these classifications and subtypes of lung cancer refer to different types of cancer that have key differences in incidence, potential to spread, treatment options, and outcome. Lung cancer is generally characterized by rapid growth, early spread into nearby tissues and organs (metastasis), and rapid recurrence.

Incidence and Prevalence: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in both men and women in the US. More individuals die from lung cancer than from breast, prostate, and colon cancers combined. The American Cancer Society predicted 222,520 cases of pulmonary and bronchial cancer in 2010 in the US, which would affect around 116,750 men and 105,770 women, with approximately 157,300 deaths ("Detailed Guide"). Lung cancer is increasing worldwide at a rate of 0.5% per year, possibly due in part to increase of smoking in developing countries and industrial exposure. In all countries, rates are higher in urban than rural areas, and 2 to 6 times higher in males than females. In European countries, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality, and accounts for about 21% of all cancer cases in men.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor