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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Cancer, Pleura


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Overview

Pleural cancer (malignant mesothelioma) refers to abnormal growth of the tissue that lines the chest wall and envelops the lungs (pleura). Although most pleural cancers are metastatic (secondary cancers from other organs or tissues), primary cancer of the pleura may either present as diffuse malignant mesothelioma or localized mesothelioma. Localized mesothelioma, known as localized fibrous tumor of the pleura (LFTP), has both benign and malignant forms that occur at a ratio of 7:1 (Meziane).

Mesothelioma is characterized by numerous small lumps (nodules) that cover the pleura. Eventually, these nodules spread and form a sheet-like thickening that encases and compresses the lungs. It can also spread to the esophagus, ribs, vertebra, and peritoneal cavity. Individuals who develop mesothelioma have usually had exposure to asbestos, which was commonly used in mining, shipbuilding, construction, and the manufacturing of textiles and insulation before governmental legislation restricted asbestos exposure in the US.

Localized mesothelioma, or LFTP, is rarer than malignant mesothelioma and is often harmless (benign). LFTP may arise from tumors originating in the abdominal (visceral) pleura that project into the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs. They may cause fluid to escape from blood vessels into the pleural cavity because of rupture or seepage (pleural effusion).

Malignant mesothelioma is staged from I to IV, with IV being the most advanced disease. Stage I is cancer that remains localized in the pleura and lung, stage II is cancer that has invaded the chest wall or mediastinum and has metastasized to nearby thoracic lymph nodes, stage III is cancer that has invaded the diaphragm and peritoneal cavity or has metastasized to distant lymph nodes, and stage IV is cancer that has metastasized to distant locations.

Incidence and Prevalence: Malignant mesothelioma and LFTP are rare diseases; the incidence of mesothelioma is less than 5% of all pleural malignancies (Khan). It is estimated that 8 million individuals in the US have been exposed to asbestos, and there are about 2,000 to 3,000 new asbestos-related cancer cases diagnosed annually in the US (Tan). Only 1 in 1 million individuals without exposure to asbestos will be diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma (Dee).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor