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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Cerebrovascular Accident


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Overview

A cerebrovascular accident, commonly known as a stroke, is sudden, localized damage in the brain due to severe disturbance of the blood flow to a part of the organ that results in nervous system (neurologic) deficits. Stroke may result from either interrupted delivery of blood and oxygen to the brain (ischemic stroke) or bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke).

The cause of ischemic stroke is blockage (occlusion) of arteries that carry blood and oxygen to the brain or within the brain. Non-thrombotic occlusion of small arteries deep in the brain is the most common cause of ischemic stroke.

The source of the occlusion may also be a clot (thrombus) dislodged from the wall of a blood vessel, the heart, or the valves of the heart. Thrombi are most likely to form in the blood vessels when narrowing of the arteries caused by fatty deposits in the vessel walls (atherosclerosis) leads to turbulent blood flow. Thrombi form along the walls of the heart when portions of the heart muscle are damaged or not able to contract normally (e.g., heart attack [myocardial infarction], atrial fibrillation, severe congestive heart failure [CHF], cardiomyopathy). Thrombi form on valves when there is damage to the valve (endocarditis, mitral stenosis, artificial valves). Certain medical conditions can also cause platelets or red blood cells to become stickier or may cause increased blood viscosity, leading to formation of a thrombus; these conditions include polycythemia, multiple myeloma, sickle cell anemia, factor V Leiden, anti-thrombin III deficiency, prothrombin mutation, protein C deficiency, and protein S deficiency.

Occlusion can also be caused by material (embolus) traveling through the blood stream. Examples of an embolus include, besides a thrombus, a piece of atheromatous plaque, or a clump of bacteria.

Regardless of the cause of blockage, brain tissue and nerve cells (neurons) die when robbed of blood and oxygen supply. The size and location of the blockage and the extent of damage before blood flow is restored determines the effects of a stroke. Brief ischemic episodes (transient ischemic attacks [TIAs]) can occur as warning signs of an impending larger stroke. People with a history of TIAs have almost double the risk of strokes (Go). Symptoms of TIA usually pass quickly; a diagnosis of ischemic stroke is made when neurologic deficits persist for more than one hour.

Bleeding from a ruptured blood vessel causes hemorrhagic stroke. The blood vessel may rupture because of high blood pressure (hypertension), increased tendency toward bleeding, an abnormal circumscribed weakness in the wall of a blood vessel (aneurysm), or abnormal communication between arteries and veins (arteriovenous malformation). For specific information concerning hemorrhagic stroke, see the topic Cerebral Hemorrhage.

Conditions that predispose individuals to stroke are hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, CHF, and atrial fibrillation, particularly if these conditions are untreated or are poorly controlled. Risk also is increased in individuals who have a history of TIAs, cerebrovascular disease, or a family history of stroke.

Incidence and Prevalence: Ischemic strokes account for 87% of all strokes (Go). Each year about 130,000 Americans experience a stroke (CDC). Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death and the tenth leading cause of disability in the US (CDC).

Blacks have a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and sickle cell anemia leading to a prevalence of stroke almost twice that in Caucasian populations, with 3.9% of blacks and 2.4% of Caucasians affected (Go). The incidence of stroke in black males aged 45 to 54 is 9.7 per 1,000 and 7.2 per 1,000 black females; the incidence of stroke in Caucasian males and females aged 45 to 54 is 2.4 per 1,000 (Go). By age 65, the incidence of stroke in black males and females increases to 13.1 per 1,000 and 10.0 per 1,000 respectively, and stroke incidence in Caucasian males is 6.1 per 1,000 and in Caucasian females 4.8 per 1,000 (Go).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor