Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Cerebrovascular Accident


Related Terms

  • Acute Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Brain Attack
  • Cerebral Infarction
  • Craniovascular Accident
  • CVA
  • Stroke
  • Stroke Syndrome

Differential Diagnosis

Specialists

  • Cardiovascular Internist
  • Internal Medicine Physician
  • Neurologist
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Orthotist
  • Physiatrist (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Specialist)
  • Physical Therapist
  • Psychiatrist

Comorbid Conditions

Factors Influencing Duration

Delay in treatment of stroke negatively influences recovery. Age at onset also affects recovery, with older adults experiencing longer-lasting effects than those with onset before age 45. Disability varies with the part of the brain affected, the extent of brain damage, and response to treatment.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
434.01 - Cerebral Thrombosis; Thrombosis of Cerebral Arteries; with Cerebral Infarction
434.11 - Cerebral Embolism; with Cerebral Infarction
434.91 - Cerebral Artery Occlusion, Unspecified; with Cerebral Infarction
435.9 - Unspecified Transient Cerebral Ischemia; Impending Cerebrovascular Accident; Intermittent Cerebral Ischemia; Transient Ischemic Attack [TIA]
436 - Cerebrovascular Disease, Acute, But Ill-defined
437.1 - Cerebrovascular Disease, Other and Ill Defined; Other Generalized Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease
997.02 - Iatrogenic Cerebrovascular Infarction or Hemorrhage; Postoperative Stroke

Overview

A cerebrovascular accident, commonly known as a stroke, is sudden, localized damage in the brain that results in nervous system (neurologic) deficits. Stroke may result from either interrupted delivery of blood and oxygen to the brain (ischemic stroke) or abnormal bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke).

The cause of ischemic stroke is blockage (occlusion) of arteries that carry blood and oxygen to the brain or within the brain. The source of the occlusion may be a clot (thrombus) attached to the wall of a blood vessel, the heart, or the valves of the heart. Thrombi are most likely to form in the blood vessels when narrowing of the arteries caused by fatty deposits in the vessel walls (atherosclerosis) leads to turbulent blood flow. Thrombi form along the walls of the heart when portions of the heart muscle are damaged or not able to contract normally (e.g., myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, severe congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy). Thrombi form on valves when there is damage to the valve (endocarditis, mitral stenosis, artificial valves). Certain medical conditions can also cause platelets or red blood cells to become stickier or cause increased blood viscosity, leading to formation of a thrombus. These conditions include polycythemia, multiple myeloma, sickle cell anemia, protein C deficiency, and protein S deficiency.

Occlusion can also be caused by material (embolus) traveling through the blood stream. Examples of an embolus include a thrombus that has broken away from the wall of the blood vessel, heart, or valve; a piece of plaque; or a clump of bacteria.

Non-thrombotic occlusion of small arteries deep in the brain is the most common cause of ischemic stroke. Regardless of the cause of blockage, nerve cells (neurons) and brain tissue die when robbed of blood and oxygen supply. The size and location of the blockage and the extent of damage before blood flow is restored determined the effects of a stroke. Brief ischemic episodes (transient ischemic attacks or TIAs) can occur as warning signs of an impending larger stroke. TIAs occur before almost 30% of ischemic strokes. Symptoms of TIA usually pass quickly; a diagnosis of ischemic stroke is made when neurologic deficits persist for more than 1 hour.

Bleeding from a ruptured blood vessel causes hemorrhagic stroke. The blood vessel may rupture because of high blood pressure (hypertension), increased tendency toward bleeding, an abnormal weakness in the wall of a blood vessel (aneurysm), or abnormal communication between arteries and veins (arteriovenous malformation). For specific information concerning hemorrhagic stroke, see the topic titled Cerebral Hemorrhage.

Conditions that predispose individuals for stroke are hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation, particularly if these conditions are untreated or are poorly controlled. Risk also is increased in individuals who have a history of transient ischemic attacks, cerebrovascular disease, or a family history of stroke.

Incidence and Prevalence: Ischemic strokes account for 85% of all strokes (Becker). Each year 160 out of every 100,000 Americans experience a stroke (Singh). In industrialized countries, stroke is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of disability in adults (Jauch).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






Feedback
Send us comments, suggestions, corrections, or anything you would like us to hear. If you are not logged in, you must include your email address, in order for us to respond. We cannot, unfortunately, respond to every comment. If you are seeking medical advice, please contact your physician. Thank you!
Send this comment to:
Sales Customer Support Content Development
 
This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is published with the understanding that the author, editors, and publisher are not engaged in rendering medical, legal, accounting or other professional service. If medical, legal, or other expert assistance is required, the service of a competent professional should be sought. We are unable to respond to requests for advice. Any Sales inquiries should include an email address or other means of communication.