Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Chemotherapy

chemotherapy in 中文(中华人民共和国)

Related Terms

  • Anticancer Drug Therapy
  • Cytotoxic Cancer Treatment
  • Injection

Specialists

  • Hematologist
  • Oncologist

Comorbid Conditions

Factors Influencing Duration

The length of disability is highly variable, depending on the type of cancer being treated, the individual's general health and age, the type of drug(s) being administered, the dosage, the side effects of the treatment itself, and the schedule of administration.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
00.10 - Pharmaceuticals, Implantation of Chemotherapeutic Agent; Brain Wafer Chemotherapy; Interstitial/ Intracavitary
39.96 - Total body perfusion
39.97 - Other Perfusion; Perfusion NOS, Perfusion, Local [Regional] of: Carotid Artery, Coronary Artery, Head, Lower Limb, Neck, Upper Limb
99.25 - Injection of Infusion of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Substance; Chemoembolization; Injection of Infusion of Antineoplastic Agent
99.88 - Therapeutic Photopheresis; Extracorporeal Photochemotherapy; Extracorporeal Photopheresis

Overview

Chemotherapy is the administration of drugs (antineoplastic or cytotoxic agents) that destroy cancer cells.

Chemotherapeutic drugs destroy tumor cells by several mechanisms, which include interfering with cell division, damaging the cell's DNA (the molecular structure that dictates cell growth and function), changing the cell's ability to absorb or release fluid (osmotic stress), or interfering with the ability of the tumor to develop its own blood supply.

Chemotherapy drugs may be administered intravenously or orally over a period of several weeks to several months. Three or 4 weeks between treatments are usually required for the body to recover from the effects of a single treatment. Multiple antineoplastic drugs may be used. When combined, they work more effectively together than as single agents (synergism) to destroy cancer cells.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Reason for Procedure

Chemotherapy is used to kill cancer cells. It may be used alone or in combination with surgery and / or radiation. Chemotherapy is the only treatment for some types of malignancies such as leukemias and lymphomas. Chemotherapy also plays an important role when tumors have spread to multiple, distant sites in the body (metastatic cancer). Chemotherapy may also be used for palliative treatment of a tumor, which serves to relieve or alleviate pain without curing the cancer. Even when recovery is unlikely, an individual's comfort level can be significantly improved if the tumor or cancer is treated and the size reduced.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



How Procedure is Performed

There are numerous different chemotherapeutic agents, which may be administered by a slow intravenous injection or orally. Chemotherapy is frequently done on an outpatient basis, with the individual having a series of treatments over a period of several weeks to months.

Although the process may vary, a typical approach would be for the individual to relax in a recliner while receiving intravenous chemotherapy. Rather than requiring placement of a new intravenous catheter for each chemotherapy session, many individuals have a catheter that stays in place for a prolonged period of time (up to several months if necessary). This catheter is inserted through a tiny incision on the chest into the large vein entering the heart. The catheter then lies just beneath the skin. A small device beneath the skin at the end of the catheter is used for insertion of the tubing that delivers the chemotherapy agent. Depending upon the type of agent that is used, the individual may receive supportive medications or other treatments to decrease some of the unpleasant side effects of chemotherapy, such as nausea. Each chemotherapy session usually takes several hours, depending upon preparation time and time required for monitoring after the procedure.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Prognosis

The outcome varies from complete recovery to palliative treatment. The effect of the chemotherapy depends upon the stage of the underlying cancer, whether the cancer is localized or systemic, the cytotoxic agents chosen, as well as the individual's general health and other medical conditions.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Complications

Chemotherapy can have many adverse effects, most of which resolve after treatment ends. Common side effects of chemotherapy include nausea and vomiting, anorexia, hair loss (alopecia), or pain. Other complications include pain or inflammation at the injection site. The most serious, life-threatening complications of some types of chemotherapy are secondary leukemia and cardiac impairment, both of which are rare. Risk factors for cardiac toxicity include older age, pre-existing cardiac disease, a higher cumulative dose of the cytotoxic agent, and irradiation of the heart. Women undergoing chemotherapy may experience menopause.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

Restrictions and accommodations will be determined based on the type of chemotherapy, its side effects, and the underlying disease. Periodic absences for treatment and recovery from treatment may be required.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

General

Savarese, Diane. "Principles of Cancer Therapy." Textbook of Primary Care Medicine. Eds. J. Noble and H. L. Greene. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 2001. 1066-1071. MD Consult. Elsevier, Inc. 19 May 2005 <http://home.mdconsult.com/das/book/47344603-2/view/959?sid=368586745>.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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