Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease


Related Terms

  • Asthma
  • CAO
  • Chronic Airway Obstruction
  • Chronic Bronchitis
  • Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
  • COPD
  • Emphysema

Differential Diagnosis

Specialists

  • Internal Medicine Physician
  • Pulmonologist

Comorbid Conditions

  • Allergies
  • Asthma
  • Heart disease
  • Poor nutrition

Factors Influencing Duration

Factors include type of COPD, severity of the underlying disease when treatment began, severity of COPD exacerbation, individual's compliance with treatment protocols, age of the individual, existence of other chronic medical conditions or complications, frequency of flare-ups, and individual's working and living environments. Exposure to secondhand smoke, occupational exposure to irritants, air pollution levels, and physical condition may all influence disability and the ability to recover.

Disability duration will be determined by the specific diagnosis. Disability is more likely to occur with acute exacerbations.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
496 - Chronic Airway Obstruction, Not Elsewhere Classified; Chronic Nonspecific Lung Disease; Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease [COPD] NOS

Overview

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined by the guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as a chronic disease characterized by airway/alveolar/systemic inflammation with measured airflow obstruction that is partially reversible with bronchodilator therapy (Fromer 1219). COPD includes two main components: chronic bronchitis, a partially reversible component, and emphysema with fibrosis, which together are an irreversible component. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema often occur together and overlap, resulting in chronic inflammation, airflow limitations, and tissue damage.

Chronic obstructive bronchitis is the most prevalent COPD; about 10% of individuals with COPD have emphysema (Doherty). COPD due to chronic bronchitis is characterized by enlarged, inflamed mucus glands that block the airways (bronchi and bronchioles) with excessive mucus, resulting in a frequent, productive cough. COPD secondary to emphysema is caused by damaged lung capillaries and the destruction of the air sacs at the ends of bronchioles (lung alveoli) where oxygen exchange occurs, resulting in shortness of breath and an infrequent, nonproductive cough. Asthma, although not considered a true form of COPD, is another obstructive pulmonary disease in which chronically inflamed airways become sensitized to certain triggers (pollution, smoke, stress, exertion, allergens), resulting in an accumulation of exudative debris that temporarily blocks airflow. The inflammation and muscle spasm (bronchospasm) that occur with asthma are reversible, however.

Airway obstruction from COPD is progressive, but respiratory limitations once considered by clinicians to be irreversible are now believed to be partially reversible, although not to normal airflow status. Due to the similarity of COPD and asthma symptoms, certain individuals with COPD may be able to partially reverse airway obstruction with medication that opens constricted airways (bronchodilators), similar to that used by asthmatics. Conversely, those with asthma may develop true COPD if repeated airway inflammation leads to scarring and permanent airway constriction.

The most common cause of COPD is inhalation of tobacco smoke and other noxious chemicals, particles, or gases. Another well-established but rare cause of COPD is the deficiency of a liver protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). AAT deficiency is an inherited disorder that accounts for less than 5% of COPD in the United States ("Chronic"). Normal lung function depends on elastic fibers surrounding the airways and within the walls of lung alveoli where gas exchange takes place. These elastic fibers are composed of a protein called elastin. In normal individuals, AAT protects lung elastin from breakdown by the enzyme elastase, which typically functions to digest and remove old or damaged cells from the lung. With AAT deficiency, liver does not release enough AAT, and the AAT released is abnormal, which may allow elastase to destroy lung tissues.

Incidence and Prevalence: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that COPD affects about 10 million adults who self-report the diagnosis, and that 24 million have lung disease that may actually be COPD but has not been diagnosed by a physician (Doherty). Among these, 120,000 deaths due to COPD are recorded annually; it is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States (Doherty). In 2001, of 12.1 million COPD patients, approximately 9.2 million individuals had chronic bronchitis, 2 million had emphysema, and 0.9 million had both conditions (Doherty). Between 50,000 and 100,000 Americans have chronic lung disease due to AAT deficiency (“Chronic”). It is believed that COPD incidence may be significantly underestimated because not all individuals who have abnormal spirometry results are diagnosed with COPD. The prevalence of COPD has increased, and among the top 5 causes of death in the United States, COPD is the only disease whose mortality rate has increased (Doherty).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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