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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease


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Overview

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined by the guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as a common preventable and treatable disease, characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and the lung to noxious particles or gases (Vestbo). COPD includes two main components: chronic bronchitis, which is a partially reversible component and emphysema with fibrosis, which together are an irreversible component. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema often occur together and overlap, resulting in chronic inflammation, airflow limitations, and tissue damage.

COPD due to chronic bronchitis is characterized by enlarged, inflamed mucus glands that block the airways (bronchi and bronchioles) with excessive mucus, resulting in a frequent, productive cough. COPD secondary to emphysema is caused by damaged lung capillaries and the destruction of the air sacs at the ends of bronchioles (lung alveoli) where oxygen exchange occurs, resulting in shortness of breath (dyspnea) and an infrequent, nonproductive cough. Asthma, although not considered a form of COPD, is an obstructive pulmonary disease in which chronically inflamed airways become sensitized to certain triggers (allergens, pollution, smoke, stress, exertion), resulting in an accumulation of exudative debris that temporarily blocks airflow. The inflammation and muscle spasm (bronchospasm) that occur with asthma are reversible.

Airway obstruction from COPD is progressive and not fully reversible. Due to the similarity of COPD and asthma symptoms, certain individuals with COPD may be able to partially reverse airway obstruction with medication that opens constricted airways (bronchodilators), similar to that used by asthmatics. Conversely, those with asthma may develop true COPD if repeated airway inflammation leads to scarring and permanent airway constriction.

The most common cause of COPD is inhalation of tobacco smoke, followed much less commonly by noxious chemicals, particles, or gases. Another well-established but rare cause of COPD is the deficiency of a liver protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). AAT deficiency is an inherited disorder that accounts for less than 2 to 3% of COPD in the United States ("ATS"). Normal lung function depends on elastic fibers surrounding the airways and within the walls of lung alveoli where gas exchange takes place. These elastic fibers are composed of a protein called elastin. In normal individuals, AAT protects lung elastin from breakdown by the enzyme elastase, which typically functions to digest and remove old or damaged cells from the lung. With AAT deficiency, the liver does not release enough AAT, and the AAT released is abnormal, which may allow elastase to destroy lung tissues.

Incidence and Prevalence: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that about 15 million American adults self-report a diagnosis of COPD (CDC "What"). This is thought to be an underestimate because over 60% of individuals who have abnormal spirometry results are not diagnosed with COPD even though they meet the criteria. COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States (ALA). In 20710, death rates for COPD were 47.6 per 100,000 population for men and 36.4 per 100,000 for women (CDC "Data". Between 1999 and 2010, COPD mortality rates have decreased for men and remained steady for women (CDC "Data").

Source: Medical Disability Advisor