Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Contusion, Trunk


Related Terms

  • Body Bruise
  • Ecchymosis

Differential Diagnosis

Specialists

  • Emergency Medicine Physician
  • Family Physician
  • General Surgeon
  • Gynecologist
  • Physiatrist (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Specialist)
  • Physical Therapist
  • Urologist

Comorbid Conditions

  • Arthritis
  • Bleeding disorders (e.g., hemophilia)
  • Blood dyscrasia (e.g., idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, thrombocytopenia, leukemia)
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Fractures and lacerations
  • Osteoporosis

Factors Influencing Duration

The extent of injury and type of treatment (e.g., surgical procedure) may influence duration. Most contusions are not disabling. Hematoma, associated complications, concomitant fracture, and the individual's response to treatment influence the length of disability.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
922.0 - Contusion of Breast
922.1 - Contusion of Chest Wall
922.2 - Contusion of Abdominal Wall; Flank; Groin
922.31 - Contusion of Back
922.33 - Contusion of Back, Interscapular Region
922.8 - Contusion of Multiple Sites of Trunk
922.9 - Contusion of Unspecified Part of Trunk

Overview

Contusions of the trunk may involve the breast, chest wall, abdominal wall, back, hip, buttocks, pelvis, genitals, or pelvic floor (perineum). A contusion is a blunt, compressive injury that does not involve a break in the skin. Contusions cause damage to the skin and underlying soft tissue. Blood seeps out of damaged small blood vessels (capillaries) and collects in the surrounding tissue, forming black-and-blue marks beneath the skin (ecchymosis). After injury, gravity may pull the blood downward so the ecchymosis may extend some distance from the contusion site. Over a period of days, the black and blue will change to green and yellow and eventually fade. The affected area may become swollen and painful. Contusions of the trunk are often the result of a fall, a direct blow from a blunt object, or trauma from a motor vehicle accident.

Contusions are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. If the contusion is superficial, it involves only the skin and tissue immediately below the skin (subcutaneous tissue). If deep, muscle and bone may also be involved. Blood can accumulate and form a hematoma within the muscle, initiating an inflammatory response that can result in swelling and further tissue injury. Major trauma may cause contusions of internal organs such as the spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, or brain. Deep contusions are tender and cannot be seen unless superficial contusions accompany them.

The chest wall is particularly vulnerable to contusions because bones (e.g. ribs and clavicles) are close to the skin surface. Collarbone (clavicle) contusions are usually associated with an injury to the breastbone (sternum) or shoulder joint and can cause restricted movement of the chest and shoulder. A breast contusion involves the breast, nipple, and underlying tissues and can occur in both men and women.

The back is also vulnerable to contusions because of the proximity of bone to the skin surface. The shoulder blade (scapula) is at risk because it protrudes slightly with little muscle and fat between the bone and skin. Contusions to the shoulder blade can cause restricted movement of the shoulder. Back contusions occur following a fall or blow by a blunt object.

Areas of the hip and pelvis that are most prone to contusions are the upper tip of the pelvic bone (iliac crest); the lower, front region of the pubic bone (pubic ramus); the upper, outer corner of the thigh bone (greater trochanter); and the lower, rear region of the pelvic bone (ischial tuberosity). A contusion at the iliac crest with formation of a hematoma within the connective tissue covering the bone (periosteum) is called a "hip pointer." Individuals who fall onto the buttocks may incur a contusion at the ischial tuberosity; those who fall on the side or receive a blow from a blunt object may have a contusion at the greater trochanter. Individuals falling forward or receiving a blow from a blunt object may incur a contusion at the iliac crest. Contusions at the pubic ramus may occur if an individual falls across a bar (e.g., gymnastics). Injuries to the buttocks can affect the sciatic nerve.

Contusions are one of the most common hip and pelvis injuries sustained by the elderly and by athletes. Perineal contusions are caused by a fall or a direct blow to the floor of the pelvis and are often associated with genital contusions.

Incidence and Prevalence: Contusions are very common. Most contusions go unreported and untreated so overall incidence is not known.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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