Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Dependent Personality Disorder


Related Terms

  • Inadequate Personality Disorder

Differential Diagnosis

Specialists

  • Clinical Psychologist
  • Psychiatrist

Comorbid Conditions

  • Alcohol or substance abuse disorders
  • Anxiety
  • Other psychiatric disorders

Factors Influencing Duration

The extent of the condition, individual response to treatment, existence of other conditions, and relevant recent circumstances occurring within the individual's life all can influence length of disability.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
301.6 - Dependent Personality Disorder; Asthenic Personality; Inadequate Personality; Passive Personality

Diagnosis

History: The psychiatric interview and mental status exam are the primary methods utilized by the practitioner. The physician looks for symptoms of a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that lead to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, both 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and 5th Edition (DSM-5), 5 or more of the following 8 personality traits must be present to justify the diagnosis: difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others; need for others to assume responsibility in most major areas of his or her life; difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval (this does not include realistic fears of retribution); difficulty initiating projects or doing things independently because of lack of self-confidence in judgment or abilities rather than not enough motivation or energy; excessive measures to obtain nurturance and support from others, even volunteering to do things that are unpleasant; discomfort or helplessness when alone because of exaggerated fears of inability to provide self-care; urgency in seeking another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends; or an unrealistic preoccupation with fears of being left alone to care for himself or herself (DSM-IV-TR, DSM-5).

Physical exam: The physical exam is not helpful in diagnosing this disorder. Observation of the individual's orientation, dress, mannerisms, behavior, and content of speech provide essential signs to help diagnose the illness.

Tests: When used in combination with the history, standardized psychological assessment strategies such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) can be helpful in diagnosing personality disorders.

Note: It must be kept in mind that just because a physical diagnosis cannot be established as the cause of the presenting symptomatology, it does not necessarily mean that the cause is a mental one. That is to say that the presence of medically unexplained symptomatology does not necessarily establish the presence of a psychiatric condition. The first step in identifying the presence of a mental disorder is excluding the presence of malingering and/or of factitious disorder. Although factitious disorder is conscious and purposeful, it is classified as a psychiatric disorder. The strong need for this step is especially true whenever there is a medicolegal context associated with the presenting problem(s). Additionally, using DSM-5 and/or ICD-9-CM or ICD-10-CM, the clinician will find that many presentations fail to fit completely within the boundaries of a single mental disorder. There are systematic ways to go about making psychiatric diagnoses, however.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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