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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Major Depressive Disorder


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Overview

Major depressive disorder (also known as major depression) is a mood disorder characterized by the presence of sad, empty, or irritable mood, with somatic and cognitive changes that negatively affect the individual's capacity to function. It is one of several types of depressive disorder. Major depression is responsible for more physical and social dysfunction than many chronic medical conditions. Individuals with major depression find it difficult to cope with normal life activities or to feel or enjoy the pleasures of life.

Everyone experiences depressed moods as a result of a change, either in the form of a setback or a loss. The sadness and depressed feelings that accompany the changes and losses of life are usually appropriate, necessary, and transient and can present an opportunity for personal growth. However, depression that persists and results in serious dysfunction in daily life may indicate a depressive disorder that may need to be treated as a medical problem. The severity, duration, and presence of other symptoms are factors that distinguish normal sadness from a depressive disorder.

Major depression, known as major depressive disorder in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition), is a mood disorder distinguished by the occurrence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is diagnosed when an individual experiences five or more of the following nine symptoms for at least two consecutive weeks (at least one of the symptoms is depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure [anhedonia]): depressed mood; marked reduction of interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day; changes in appetite that result in weight losses or gains unrelated to dieting; insomnia or oversleeping nearly every day; psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day; loss of energy or increased fatigue; feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt; difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions; and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, or attempts at suicide. The symptoms produce significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning, and the episode is not accounted for by the physiological effects of a substance or by another medical condition. The occurrence of one major depressive episode typically leads to the diagnosis of major depressive disorder except under a few circumstances, such as having had a manic or hypomanic episode in the past. A cause or trigger for major depression may not be identified in all individuals. However, genetic predisposition and/or disturbances in levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine are believed to be the underlying metabolic abnormalities in most cases.

Grief is a psychological and emotional reaction to a significant loss, including the loss of a spouse or loved one; early bereavement-related responses may be disbelief, low mood, insomnia, and loss of appetite, accompanied by disrupted functioning. Bereavement may induce great suffering, but it does not typically induce an episode of major depressive disorder; bereavement-related depression tends to occur in individuals prone to depressive disorders.

A depressive episode is diagnosed only if the symptoms described above are not associated with any other psychiatric conditions (such as bipolar disorder) or medical conditions (such as neurological or hormonal problems, cancer, or an individual's state of health after a stroke or a heart attack [myocardial infarction]). In the latter case, the diagnosis is depressive disorder due to another medical condition, and the medical condition must be particularly specified. To be diagnostic for major depression, symptoms must not be due to side effects of medications or substance abuse.

The DSM-5 adds several specifiers to a diagnosis of major depressive disorder based, for example, on whether the individual has experienced a single depressive episode or recurrent depressive episodes; severity is rated along a continuum of mild, moderate, severe, and severe with psychotic features. The latter is sometimes known as depressive psychosis. Partial and full remissions are additional specifiers for major depressive episodes. At least 2 consecutive months in-between episodes of major depression are necessary to qualify as a new episode of depression.

Incidence and Prevalence: Depression of all types affects 19% of the population at some point in life. In the US, the lifetime risk is 23% for women and 15% for men (Kessler). An international study involving 17 researchers and 38,000 individuals from 10 countries reported that the lifetime risk of depression ranged from 1.5% in Taiwan to 19% in Lebanon. Risks in other countries, in ascending order, were 2.9% in Korea, 4.3% in Puerto Rico, 5.2% in the US, 9.2% in Germany, 9.6% in Canada, 11.6% in New Zealand, and 16.4% in France (Weissman). The 30-day prevalence and lifetime prevalence of major depression were shown to be 0.2% and 5% in men 65 and older, and 1.5% and 13% in women 65 and older, respectively (Kessler).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor