Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Depression, Major


Related Terms

  • Clinical Depression
  • Depressive Psychosis
  • Endogenous Depression
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • Psychotic Depression
  • Unipolar Depression

Differential Diagnosis

Specialists

  • Clinical Psychologist
  • Psychiatrist

Comorbid Conditions

  • Alcohol or substance abuse disorders
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, lupus)
  • Cardiac conditions
  • Other general medical conditions
  • Personality disorder

Factors Influencing Duration

Length of disability may be influenced by the severity of the illness, the presence of complicating factors such as substance abuse or suicide attempts, response to therapy, and job requirements. Only in the most severe and unusual cases should major depression result in permanent disability.

Substance abuse will complicate treatment and may significantly delay returning to work. Suicide attempts that lead to hospitalization will also be associated with longer periods of disability.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
296.2 - Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode
296.20 - Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode; Unspecified
296.21 - Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode; Mild
296.22 - Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode; Moderate
296.23 - Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode; Severe, without Mention of Psychotic Behavior
296.24 - Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode; Severe, Specified as with Psychotic Behavior
296.25 - Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode; in Partial or Unspecified Remission
296.26 - Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode; in Full Remission
296.3 - Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent Episode
296.30 - Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent Episode; Unspecified
296.31 - Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent Episode; Mild
296.32 - Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent Episode; Moderate
296.33 - Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent Episode; Severe, without Mention of Psychotic Behavior
296.34 - Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent Episode; Severe, Specified as with Psychotic Behavior
296.35 - Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent Episode; in Partial or Unspecified Remission
296.36 - Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent Episode; in Full Remission
311 - Depressive Disorder, Not Elsewhere Classified

Prognosis

Most individuals with a major depressive episode will get better, responding favorably to at least one antidepressant medication. Individuals may also benefit from psychotherapy. With time, recovery is usually complete, though the risk of relapse increases with each episode. More than half of all individuals with one episode of major depression will have another, while those individuals with a history of three previous episodes have a 90% likelihood of having a fourth. Because of this high relapse rate, it is recommended that individuals with a history of multiple depressive episodes receive medication for the rest of their lives.

Spontaneous recovery may take months, during which time the individual is at great risk of complications. According to the DSM-IV-TR, Risk of recurrence is about 70% at 5 years and at least 80% at 8 years. Among individuals with severe major depression, 76% on antidepressants recover, compared to 18% on sugar pills (placebo) or on psychotherapy without medication.

Poor outcome is associated with inadequate treatment, severe initial symptoms (including psychosis), early age of onset, greater number of previous episodes, incomplete recovery after 1 year, pre-existing severe mental or medical disorder, and family dysfunction.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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