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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Dyspnea


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Overview

Dyspnea is a sensation of difficult or uncomfortable breathing. It manifests as breathlessness or increased respiratory effort. Dyspnea is experienced when the need for oxygen exceeds the actual or perceived capacity of the lungs to respond. This need results in an increased respiratory rate (tachypnea), thus increasing the physical effort needed for the individual get adequate oxygen. Dyspnea is believed to result from complex interactions between neurologic stimulation, the mechanics of breathing, and the related response of the central nervous system. A specific area has been identified in the mid-brain that may influence the perception of breathing difficulties.

The four general categories of dyspnea are based on its causes: cardiac, pulmonary, mixed cardiac or pulmonary, and noncardiac or nonpulmonary. The most common heart and lung diseases that produce dyspnea are asthma, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and myocardial ischemia or heart attack (myocardial infarction). Foreign body inhalation, toxic damage to the airway, pulmonary embolism, congestive heart failure (CHF), anxiety with hyperventilation (panic disorder), anemia, and physical deconditioning because of sedentary lifestyle or obesity can produce dyspnea. In most cases, dyspnea occurs with exacerbation of the underlying disease. Dyspnea also can result from weakness or injury to the chest wall or chest muscles, decreased lung elasticity, obstruction of the airway, increased oxygen demand, or poor pumping action of the heart that results in increased pressure and fluid in the lungs, such as in CHF.

Sudden onset of dyspnea (acute dyspnea) is most typically associated with narrowing of the airways or airflow obstruction (bronchospasm), blockage of one of the arteries of the lung (pulmonary embolism), acute heart failure or myocardial infarction, pneumonia, or panic disorder. Long-standing dyspnea (chronic dyspnea) is most often a manifestation of chronic or progressive diseases of the lung and / or heart, such as COPD, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Dyspnea is a hallmark finding in asthma, a lung condition characterized by periodic inflammation and narrowing of the airways following exposure to airway irritants. Asthma may resolve spontaneously or become progressively worse and develop into a chronic condition. Anxiety or panic disorders may contribute to dyspnea in individuals with asthma.

Dyspnea appears early in occupational lung disease (OLD), which is caused by repeated exposure to toxic fumes, dust, or airborne particles in the workplace. Dyspnea becomes worse as the disease progresses.

Dyspnea also is experienced by individuals encountering high-altitude sickness (high-altitude pulmonary edema, [HAPE]). This is associated with rapid rate of mountain ascent and normally occurs during the first 1 to 3 days of achieving a high altitude. Dyspnea resolves with use of supplemental oxygen, rapid descent, and occasionally hyperbaric therapy.

Incidence and Prevalence: The exact incidence of dyspnea cannot be estimated because of the broad range of disease-related causes in which it may occur. Dyspnea is often recorded as a symptom of an underlying disease rather than as a separate disease. Incidence of common causes of dyspnea is shown below.

Asthma is a common condition that affects 22 million individuals in the US, occurring in about 5% to 10% of the population and accounting for more than 1.8 million emergency department visits annually (Morris). Panic disorders are present in 5% to 40% of individuals with asthma, and occur with a prevalence of 1% to 5% of all individuals in the US (Plewa).

About 12 million adults over age 25 have been diagnosed with COPD; of these approximately 9.2 million individuals have chronic bronchitis, 2 million have emphysema and 0.9 million have both conditions (Doherty). It is estimated that at least other 12 million individuals have undiagnosed COPD.
Occupational lung disease is a leading cause of work-related health problems in the US, but the actual incidence is difficult to determine because of lack of reporting, low recognition of signs and symptoms associated with substance exposure, and poor understanding of the disease and of the guidelines for diagnosis.

About 19.8% of US adults smoke tobacco; death from tobacco smoking occurs 13 to 14 years earlier than in non-smokers (CDC Tobacco Fact Sheet).

Heart disease, including CHF, CAD, and myocardial infarction, is the leading cause of death in men and women in Native American, Alaskan natives, blacks, whites, and Hispanic populations (CDC Heart Disease Fact Sheet).

Incidence of HAPE is 0.01% to 0.1% in the general population and as high as 20% to 33% in climbers (Kale).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor