Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Borderline Personality Disorder


Related Terms

  • Borderline Disorder
  • Borderline Personality
  • Borderline Syndrome
  • BPD
  • Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder

Differential Diagnosis

  • Identity problems
  • Mood disorders
  • Other personality disorders
  • Personality change due to a general medical condition
  • Symptoms that may develop in association with substance abuse

Specialists

  • Clinical Psychologist
  • Psychiatrist

Comorbid Conditions

Factors Influencing Duration

Complications, the severity of the condition, the individual's response to treatment and support systems, and job duties may influence the length of disability.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
301.83 - Borderline Personality Disorder

Treatment

The primary treatment for borderline personality disorder is psychotherapy. Because these individuals tend to form intense love-hate relationships, they may first cast therapists as idealized rescuers, and then despise them as villains when things go wrong (“splitting”). Therapists must avoid this struggle, and must be aware that individuals with borderline personality disorder tend to pit different caregivers (and all other important people in their lives) against each other. At the same time, therapists must tolerate episodic angry outbursts to demonstrate that these individuals need not fear abandonment.

Borderline patients are often hospitalized for their suicide attempts, but both admission and discharge are difficult because of power struggles with caregivers and family. In the hospital setting, intensive individual and group psychotherapy are both useful. A multidisciplinary approach is most successful, utilizing staff trained in recreational, occupational, and vocational therapy. Group therapy should be supportive rather than focused on analyzing motivations for the individual's behavior. Both in individual and group therapy, the therapist should help individuals set limits for their own behavior, respect limits set by other people, and solve problems using a reality-based approach. Ideally, individuals remain in the hospital until they show marked improvement, but long-term hospitalization can sometimes make the individual worse due to increased acting out and mimicking the behaviors of more disturbed individuals. After hospitalization, an outpatient therapist can stabilize the individual and help prevent future hospitalizations. Outpatient psychotherapy usually consists of 2 to 3 sessions weekly over a period of years, but longer intervals between sessions may also be useful. Family counseling may help families deal with the stress involved in relating to the borderline patient.

Behavior therapy and social skills training are utilized in an inpatient or outpatient setting. Research suggests that behavior therapy may be better than traditional psychotherapy in terms of decreasing suicidal behavior and anger, and improving social adjustment. Dialectical behavior therapy is a relatively new psychotherapeutic approach with a growing evidence base that has shown promise in treating borderline personality disorder. Outpatient settings utilized for these individuals include halfway houses, day treatment programs, night hospitals, and other support groups.

Antipsychotics may help control anger, hostility, and brief psychotic episodes. Mood-stabilizing medications, including lithium or anti-epileptic drugs, may help with mood swings. Serotonergics and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may help stabilize impulsive behavior and depressive symptoms. Benzodiazepines (anti-panic or anti-anxiety drugs) can help anxiety, but long-term use should be avoided due to addictive potential; some authorities think that these drugs are contraindicated because they reduce inhibitions and hence are likely to increase impulsivity.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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