Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Iontophoresis


Related Terms

  • Transdermal Iontophoresis

Specialists

  • Dermatologist
  • Orthopedic (Orthopaedic) Surgeon
  • Physiatrist (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Specialist)
  • Physical Therapist
  • Rheumatologist
  • Sports Medicine Physician

Factors Influencing Duration

If this procedure is being used for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, the underlying conditions, such as arthritis or sports injuries, will affect recovery time.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
99.27 - Iontophoresis

Overview

Iontophoresis is a procedure that uses a small, painless electric current to increase the permeability of the skin. This noninvasive method allows drugs that would normally remain on the skin surface to pass through the skin to deeper tissues. It is used to treat excessively sweaty palms and soles (hyperhidrosis), inflammation of the membranes of the feet (plantar fasciitis), carpal tunnel syndrome, and tennis elbow. The same technique can be used to deliver topical anesthesia prior to cut-down for artificial kidney dialysis, insertion of tracheotomy tubes, and venipuncture.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Reason for Procedure

Iontophoresis is a noninvasive procedure that moves medications across the skin and into deeper tissues. Because iontophoresis acts quickly and locally, it can be used in local anesthesia and pain management. It has proven beneficial in the treatment of localized skin disorders such as excessive sweating of the palms and soles of the feet (hyperhidrosis), nail diseases, post-herpetic neuralgia, psoriasis, eczema, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. It can also be used to deliver non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or topical steroids to tissues in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders such as plantar fasciitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and arthritis.

When iontophoresis is used as a diagnostic tool for cystic fibrosis, the test is commonly called a "sweat test." Individuals with cystic fibrosis produce higher than normal levels of chloride in their sweat. Pilocarpine, a medication that increases sweating, is delivered through the skin by iontophoresis. The sweat is collected and then analyzed for chloride concentration.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



How Procedure is Performed

The skin is cleansed and the medication is applied to the selected area. Electrodes are attached to the site and a painless, low electrical current is applied. The electric current increases the permeability of the skin, allowing the medication to pass through the skin into the deeper tissues at the selected site.

When iontophoresis used in the sweat test for cystic fibrosis, electrodes are applied to the thigh or arm. The positive electrode is covered with gauze saturated with a drug that stimulates sweating (pilocarpine). The negative electrode is covered by gauze saturated with a bicarbonate solution. A low electric current is applied to the test site. This is a painless procedure. After 5 to 12 minutes, the electrodes are removed, and the area is washed with distilled water.

Paper discs are then applied over the test site to collect the sweat. These discs are covered with paraffin (a waxy substance obtained from petroleum) to make an airtight seal and prevent evaporation of sweat. After 1 hour, the paraffin is removed. The paper discs are immediately placed in a weighing jar and sent for analysis of the amount of sodium and chloride absorbed from the skin. Iontophoresis sweat testing takes approximately 90 minutes and is painless.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Prognosis

Iontophoresis adequately delivers medications for skin conditions, topical anesthesia, and in the treatment of inflammation of the muscles and joints. No adverse effects are expected.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Complications

As with any low-voltage direct-current device, iontophoresis has the potential to cause injuries through electrolysis if equipment is not maintained or used correctly. Although rare, burns or electric shocks may occur. An allergy to the drug being applied or to the adhesives used in the process may affect recovery time.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

Restrictions and accommodations are not associated with this procedure. Any work accommodations are related to underlying medical conditions.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

General

Goldenring, John. "Sweat Electrolytes." MedlinePlus. 20 Jan. 2004. National Library of Medicine. 20 May 2005 <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003630.htm>.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






Feedback
Send us comments, suggestions, corrections, or anything you would like us to hear. If you are not logged in, you must include your email address, in order for us to respond. We cannot, unfortunately, respond to every comment. If you are seeking medical advice, please contact your physician. Thank you!
Send this comment to:
Sales Customer Support Content Development
 
This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is published with the understanding that the author, editors, and publisher are not engaged in rendering medical, legal, accounting or other professional service. If medical, legal, or other expert assistance is required, the service of a competent professional should be sought. We are unable to respond to requests for advice. Any Sales inquiries should include an email address or other means of communication.