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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Liver Disease


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Overview

Liver disease refers to many conditions that affect the ability of the liver to function properly.

The principal diseases of the liver are scarring of the liver tissue (cirrhosis) and inflammatory damage to liver cells (hepatitis). Cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease characterized by the progressive and irreversible destruction of liver tissue as a result of viral infection; as a result of chronic exposure to alcohol, drugs, or toxic substances; or in association with other diseases. As liver cells die, they are replaced with scar tissue.

Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory disease of liver cells resulting from exposure to certain chemicals or from exposure to viral infections (hepatitis strains A, B, C, D, and E). Hepatitis A is an acute inflammation occurring soon after exposure, whereas hepatitis B, C, D, and E are more likely to be chronic, lasting longer than 6 months. Hepatitis A is foodborne or waterborne; the others are spread through exchange of body fluids (blood, semen).

Many infections of the liver itself can also occur, including those from viruses, fungi, bacteria, amoebae, protozoa, and worms (helminths). Numerous types of tumors can begin in the liver (primary tumors), including many cancerous tumors (malignant tumors). Cancer from other parts of the body (metastatic cancer) may spread to the liver. Rare, hereditary diseases of the biochemical functions of the liver (metabolic diseases) can occur, especially Wilson's disease (a disorder of copper metabolism) and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (a disorder of protein metabolism). Other metabolic disorders of the whole body can affect the liver. They include sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, and amyloidosis. Two notable liver (hepatic) complications of pregnancy are acute fatty liver of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets).

Incidence and Prevalence: The overall incidence of cirrhosis in the US is 360 per 100,000 population, or approximately 900,000 total individuals. At least 30,000 people die from cirrhosis annually in the US; cirrhosis is the ninth leading cause of death in the US (Wolf).

With regard to hepatitis, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports an estimated 500,000 to 750,000 new cases in the US annually (Buggs). Worldwide, there are approximately 350 million hepatitis B carriers (or 5% of the population), and approximately 170 million people are infected with hepatitis C ("Hepatitis").

Source: Medical Disability Advisor