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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Esophageal Spasm


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Overview

Esophageal spasm refers to uncoordinated muscle contractions or contractions of excessive amplitude in the tube (esophagus) that leads from the throat to the stomach. The contractions occur repeatedly and are abnormally powerful. This results in a failure to effectively propel food down into the stomach after being swallowed.

There are two main variants of esophageal spasm: diffuse esophageal spasm (with simultaneous or quickly propagated contractions of normal amplitude, but uncoordinated) and hypertensive peristalsis (nutcracker esophagus—coordinated contractions of excessive amplitude). The hypercontractile esophagus (jackhammer esophagus) is an extreme phenotype of hypertensive contractions (with contractions of extreme amplitude and long duration in most of the esophagus) (Malas).

The exact cause of esophageal spasm is unknown; however, risk factors include irritation of the esophagus by acid that washes up from the stomach (reflux esophagitis), obstructions in the esophagus, emotional stress or psychiatric disorders, or other conditions that may affect the normal function of the nervous system (e.g., diabetes, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Esophageal spasm may also be related to an inability of the muscles in the lower esophagus to relax (achalasia).

Incidence and Prevalence: In the United States the estimated incidence of esophageal spasm is 1 case per 100,000 population per year (Malas). There are no international incidence or prevalence measures for esophageal spasm possibly because the symptoms are generally not severe or life-threatening and the problem is uncommon. A small percentage (2% to 7%) of patients with cardiac complaints are found to have esophageal spasm (Castell). Approximately half of all patients with systemic scleroderma have GI symptoms, some including esophageal spasm (Kaye-Barrett).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor