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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Esophagitis


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Overview

Esophagitis refers to inflammation of the tube (esophagus) that leads from the back of the mouth or throat to the stomach.

There are three main types of esophagitis: reflux, infectious, and corrosive. Reflux esophagitis is a complication of backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux). The stomach contents contain hydrochloric acid and a protein-digesting enzyme (pepsin). These can irritate and cause inflammation of the mucus membrane (mucosa) that lines the esophagus when it is exposed to these substances on a long-term basis. Risk factors for developing reflux esophagitis include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), hiatal hernia, or chronic ingestion of highly-seasoned foods or drugs that increase stomach acidity. It can also develop because of vomiting, surgery, or swallowing a sharp object.

Infectious esophagitis develops when fungus, yeasts (especially Candida), viruses (such as herpes or cytomegalovirus), or bacteria invade the esophagus, causing it to become irritated and inflamed. Taking antibiotics is a risk factor for developing infectious esophagitis because antibiotics decrease the number of normal mouth and throat bacteria, while allowing yeast organisms to grow unchecked. Other risk factors for infectious esophagitis include diabetes mellitus, any condition that decreases the movement (motility) capacity of the esophagus, and the decreased responsiveness of the immune system.

Corrosive esophagitis will develop when the esophagus becomes burned, irritated, and inflamed in response to the accidental or deliberate ingestion of corrosive chemicals. The severity of the burn depends upon the type and concentration of the chemical, and the length of time the esophagus has been exposed to the chemical. As with other kinds of burns, esophageal burns are classified as first-, second-, or third-degree. First-degree burns of the esophagus involve only the outer (superficial) mucosa, while second-degree burns involve the entire thickness of the mucosa, and may extend into the muscular layer of the esophageal wall. Notably, ingestion of strong acids usually produces minor esophageal injury with severe stomach (gastric) burns. Risk factors for corrosive esophagitis include ingestion of strong acids (such as drain cleaners, vinegar, or aspirin) or bases (such as lye, oven cleaner, or ammonia). Third-degree burns affect all layers of the esophagus.

Recently there is increased awareness of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), which may be related to a food allergy or autoimmune disorder. Like other types of esophagitis, symptoms in adults are heartburn, reflux, and dysphagia. A common complaint with EE is food impaction. There is a presence of vast numbers of intra-epithelial eosinophils in the esophagus as diagnosed by endoscopic esophageal biopsy. A high index of suspicion is required to make this diagnosis.

Incidence and Prevalence: The incidence of reflux esophagitis is estimated to be relatively low in the general population. In one study of 470,000 people living in Denmark, the estimated rate of esophageal lesions was 2.4 per 1,000 population (Lassen). However, this figure increases substantially among the obese and in individuals who have been treated for other gastrointestinal maladies such as hiatal hernia and gastritis (Dutta; Yamamoto). Incidence rates at a clinic in Baltimore of 12% and 24% were reported among non-obese and obese patients, respectively (Dutta). A systematic review of the literature resulted in estimating 10% to 20% of the population suffers from reflux or heartburn regularly (Dent). Prevalence of esophagitis in individuals with GERD has been reported between 10% and 70% depending on the patient population (Faybush).

Infectious esophagitis occurs infrequently in the general population; however, it develops in significantly higher rates in individuals who have compromised immune systems (Kaplan).

Incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is unknown but suspected to be as high as 2 in 10,000 among children (Rothenberg).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor