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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Fracture, Ankle


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Overview

Image Description:
Fracture Ankle - A profile view of the bones of the right lower leg and foot bones with labels for the calcaneus bone at the heel, the talus at the ankle, and the tibia and fibula of the leg. One type of ankle fracture is shown as a break in the right lateral malleolus (distal end of the fibula), the rounded bony prominence on the outside ankle.
Click to see Image

An ankle fracture is a break in the far end of one of the 2 bones of the lower leg: the tibia (the inside or medial bone of the lower leg) and the fibula (the outside or lateral bone of the lower leg). Both bones end in a bony prominence (malleolus) that forms an arch on top of the talus, one of the bones of the foot. The ankle is a major weight-bearing hinge joint composed of three bones: the distal tibia, distal fibula, and talus. These 3 bones are joined together by 3 groups of ligaments that hold the ankle joint in place. The deltoid ligament is on the inside of the ankle, the lateral ligament complex is on the outside of the ankle; another group of ligaments holds the tibia and fibula together. The talus itself is usually not included in a diagnosis of ankle fracture.

Ankle fractures occur most commonly when there is a sudden twisting injury to the foot. The ankle may roll in (inversion injury) or out (eversion injury), and the force on the foot can be transmitted to the tibia and fibula, resulting in fracture. The physician will often try to ascertain exactly how the injury occurred. Knowing the position of the ankle at the time of injury can help determine the mechanism of injury, which gives important information about which bones and ligaments were probably damaged. Fractures also can occur in individuals with unstable ankle joints and a history of recurrent ankle sprains.

As with other types of fractures, ankle fractures are described as either displaced or nondisplaced. In a displaced fracture, the fractured bone segments have moved out of alignment, while in a nondisplaced ankle fracture they have not. Any type of ankle fracture can affect the joint surface and joint motion (articulation) and almost always involves concomitant ligament injuries.

The prominent malleolar surfaces on the medial and lateral sides of the ankle are the most commonly injured areas. When one of the three bony prominences is fractured, the break is referred to as an isolated malleolus fracture. A fracture involving two malleolar prominences is called a bimalleolar fracture, and fracture of both malleoli and the posterior portion of the tibia is a trimalleolar fracture.

Incidence and Prevalence: In the US, the ankle is the joint most commonly injured. About 90% of sports-related injuries are ankle sprains, and 10 to 15% are ankle fractures (Steele). The incidence in the general US population is 187 per 100,000 person-years (Iskyan). As the population ages, the incidence of ankle fractures is increasing.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor