Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Fracture, Fingers and Thumb


Related Terms

  • Broken Finger
  • Broken Thumb
  • Fractures of the Phalanges of Hand
  • Phalangeal Fractures

Differential Diagnosis

Specialists

  • Hand Surgeon
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Orthopedic (Orthopaedic) Surgeon
  • Physiatrist (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Specialist)
  • Physical Therapist

Comorbid Conditions

Factors Influencing Duration

Disability is dependent on whether the dominant or nondominant hand is involved, work requirements, the digit/digits involved, and the presence of complications. Since the thumb is used in most hand functions, and since many hand functions can be done using only some of the fingers, thumb fractures are much more likely to limit hand function. Fractures in multiple digits typically involve much higher forces (more violent injuries) and thus have more soft tissue damage. Thus function is more limited both by more digits being involved, and more severe injury in each digit.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
816.00 - Fracture, Phalanx or Phalanges, Unspecified, Closed
816.01 - Fracture, Middle or Proximal Phalanx or Phalanges, Closed
816.02 - Fracture, Distal Phalanx or Phalanges, Closed
816.03 - Fracture, Phalanges of Hand, Multiple Sites, Closed
816.10 - Fracture, Phalanx or Phalanges, Unspecified, Open
816.11 - Fracture, Middle or Proximal Phalanx or Phalanges, Open
816.12 - Fracture, Distal Phalanx or Phalanges, Open
816.13 - Fracture, Phalanges of Hand, Multiple Sites, Open

Overview

© Reed Group
A fracture of the fingers (digits) or thumb refers to a disruption, or break, in any of the bones of these digits. The bones of the fingers and the thumb are called phalanges (plural) or phalanx (singular). Each finger has three phalanges, and each thumb has two. The finger bones are referred to as the distal, middle, and proximal phalanx, depending on their position along the length of the finger. The bones are connected at joints (the knuckles) that allow the fingers to flex (bend) and extend (straighten). The joints are described as the distal interphalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and metacarpophalangeal joint. The thumb, has only two bones (distal and proximal phalanx) and two joints, interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joint.

Any phalanx can be fractured by a direct blow, rotation, and / or by crushing injuries. Dislocations and / or open wounds may accompany the fractures. Fractures of the end of the finger (distal phalanx) may include an injury to the nail bed, which means the fracture must be treated as an open fracture. When the fingers are injured, soft tissue structures can get between the fragments, making realignment of the bones into their anatomically normal position (reduction) difficult, and tendon or ligament damage more likely.

Finger fractures are described by the fracture name and location (e.g., nondisplaced spiral fracture of the proximal phalanx). The fragments may protrude through the skin (open or compound fracture) or may cause deformity of the finger without tearing the skin (closed fracture). Function of the hand is maintained when the fingers and thumb are able to move in correct relation to each other and to the wrist bones. A fracture to any of these small bones has the potential to change this relationship, which can be painful and limit function. Tendon rupture is a significant injury that rarely accompanies finger fractures.

Incidence and Prevalence: Phalangeal fracture incidence is often difficult to determine because of under-reporting, but these fractures are estimated to comprise approximately 10% of all fractures (Divelbiss). A Canadian study of hand fractures found that phalangeal fractures comprised half of the 72,000 hand fractures studied. Annual incidence for hand fracture was estimated to range from 29 per 10,000 for individuals aged 20 or older, to 61 per 10,000 for individuals younger than 20 years (Feehan, 2006). Fractures of the distal phalanx are the most common fractures of the hand and frequently result from industrial accidents (Lyn).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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