History: Presentation will vary depending on how the mechanism of injury. Individuals may report trauma to the area that could have seemed insignificant at the time. They may complain of pain, swelling (edema), sensations of numbness or coldness, and decreased range of motion in the affected digit.
Physical exam: Bruising (ecchymosis) and edema may be evident in the area of injury. Pressure applied to the finger elicits pain. Range of motion (ROM) evaluation may suggest loss of tendon function or bone instability. Strength testing of each digit and joint establishes tendon and ligament integrity. Sensory testing may be done to evaluate nerve damage. The injured hand is compared closely with the uninjured (contralateral) one. There may be observable deformity, but the cause may be tendon damage or joint dislocation without fracture.
Examination of the skin and nail bed for bloody effusion or open wounds is done to evaluate the need for antibiotics. It is important to distinguish between new and old injuries during the examination. Previous tendon and bone injuries may otherwise complicate the findings.
Tests: Plain X-rays with anteroposterior (AP), lateral, and oblique views will reveal the fracture location.
Source: Medical Disability Advisor