Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Fracture


Overview

© Reed Group
A fracture is a structural break or disruption in the continuity of the bone regardless of the size or shape of the break. According to their cause, fractures can be broadly classified as traumatic fractures, stress fractures, and pathological fractures.

A traumatic fracture occurs when force is applied to a bone in an amount greater than it can support; the amount of force required to cause a fracture depends on the composition, shape, and strength of the bone. The force may be direct or indirect; a direct force would occur when there is blow to the forearm by a stick or to the knee from the dashboard in a motor vehicle collision; indirect forces can cause a twisting motion that results in a different type of fracture pattern.

Stress fractures can occur with repeated impacts to the bone; the repeated load causes the bone to become weakened and eventually to fracture; for example, fractures that occur with prolonged marching or running.

"Pathological" fractures occur because of diseases that affect the strength of the bone (e.g., osteopenia, osteoporosis, bone tumors), and with a force or load that is below the amount of force usually needed to break the bone.

Fracture patterns vary and can be described in terms of several categories:

Open or closed—an open (compound) fracture is one in which the skin has been pierced by part of the fractured bone. A closed (simple) fracture occurs when the skin is intact and the bone ends do not protrude through the skin.

Anatomic location—this makes reference to which bone is broken, and where; e.g., distal radius, proximal femur.

Type of fracture—the orientation of the fracture may be transverse, oblique, or spiral; the bone may be broken into three or more fragments (comminuted) or pushed together (impacted), or a small bone fragment may become detached from the main bone by a tendon or ligament injury (avulsed). A fracture may also occur only on one side of the bone, with the other side of the bone bowing outward; this is common in younger individuals where the bones are "softer" (greenstick) ("Fractures").

Alignment and displacement—bone fragments may or may not be in the appropriate anatomical position or alignment. It is important to remember that the bones provide structural support for the muscles. Muscles attached to the bones involved often pull the fracture fragments out of position, especially if the muscles spasm. This can change the status of a fracture from one where the fragments have not shifted out of position (nondisplaced) to one where they have become displaced. If there is misalignment or displacement (angled, rotated, shortened, or overlapped), repositioning (closed or open reduction) of the fracture is required to obtain acceptable anatomical alignment.

Stability—a fracture may be stable or unstable. A stable fracture is one that is unlikely to move and can be treated with a cast or splint. An unstable fracture is likely to change alignment and will require treatment (surgical open reduction with internal or external fixation) to support the weakened bony structures.

Incidence and Prevalence: Fractures are common. Over 1 million individuals were hospitalized with fractures in 2006, with an average length of stay of 5.3 days (DeFrances). Incidence of ankle fractures is 150 per 100,000 individuals, with 66% affecting one ankle bone (malleolus), and 25% affecting both ankle bones; only 2% are open fractures (Pallotta). The incidence of hip fracture is 220 per 100,000 per year (Nguyen). The most common site at which fractures associated with osteoporosis occur is the spine (27%), followed by the wrist (19%), hip (14%), and pelvis (5%) (Burge).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor