Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Fracture


Diagnosis

History: Fractures are result of the bone being loaded beyond its stress level. In cases of trauma-related fractures, individuals may describe an injury, such as a fall or an object falling on or striking them. The individual may report having heard a cracking sound at the moment of fracture, and may have lost the function of the fractured limb or of the area around the fracture; for example, the individual may be unable to bear weight on the affected limb if the fracture occurred in the lower extremity. However, the ability to move and use an injured body part does not exclude the possibility of a fracture. In cases of stress fractures, the individual may not remember a specific injury, but there usually is a history of recent activity to which the individual is not accustomed or a repeated activity that stresses a bone (e.g., distance running). It is important to obtain a thorough history, including medication use and previous injuries.

Physical exam: Individuals may have obviously misshapen (deformed) bones, swelling, pain and/or lack of feeling (decreased sensation) near the area of a fracture. Visual examination may be diagnostic in cases where the deformity is obvious. Touching the area (palpation) reveals pain or tenderness over the area. There may be decreased sensation beyond the fracture. Swelling and bruising (ecchymosis) usually is present. When the fracture involves a joint or is accompanied by subluxation or dislocation, joint looseness (laxity) and changes in range of motion may be evident.

Tests: Plain x-rays are used to determine the presence of a fracture, the severity of the fracture, and the position of the fragments. X-rays generally include the joint above and below the injury site. Subtle (occult) fractures and some stress fractures may not be visible on plain x-ray exam for up to 2 weeks or more after they occur, when detected on x-rays by visualizing healing bone callus. Suspected but hidden fractures (occult fractures) of the scaphoid bone in the wrist are undetectable on plain x-ray 60% of the time (Brydie). Computed tomography (CT) scans and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be needed to further define the fracture and its effect on surrounding joints. Occasionally, electromyogram and angiography may be required to evaluate damage to nerves and blood vessels. A bone scan may show a subtle fracture, such as a stress fracture that is not easily recognized on plain x-rays.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor