Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Gastroenteritis


Overview

Gastroenteritis is a general, nonspecific term given to a variety of conditions causing inflammation of the stomach and intestinal tract. Its most notable sign is the sudden onset of frequent bowel movements with loose or liquid feces (diarrhea), associated with nausea and vomiting, as well as abdominal cramping, abdominal pain, weakness, and sometimes either chills or fever.

Infectious gastroenteritis may be caused by viruses (50% to 70%), bacteria (15% to 20%), or parasites (10% to 15%) (Diskin). It occurs when microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, or protozoa infect the stomach or intestines. Two of the most common viruses that cause infectious gastroenteritis are the rotavirus, which often affects travelers, babies, and young children, and is responsible for 12% of cases; and the norovirus (formerly known as the Norwalk virus), which affects older children and adults and is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in the US (Diskin). Bacteria that can cause gastroenteritis include staphylococci, clostridia, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Shigella, and vibrios (V. cholerae causes a severe type of gastroenteritis called cholera). Protozoa that can cause gastroenteritis include Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia. Infectious gastroenteritis is more common in individuals with compromised immune system or HIV infection/AIDS; they may develop gastrointestinal infections from the herpes simplex virus or cytomegalovirus, a virus that often causes no symptoms in a healthy person.

Noninfectious gastroenteritis is usually due to food or shellfish intoxication (caused by bacterial toxins); medication, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy side effects; or underlying conditions such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, certain cancers, or AIDS. Its severity may vary from mild and inconvenient to severe and life-threatening.

Incidence and Prevalence: An estimated 90 million cases of gastroenteritis occur annually (Diskin). Ninety percent of individuals do not go to the doctor; 1% to 2% require hospitalization (Diskin).

An estimated 20% to 50% of individuals traveling to developing countries are affected by infectious gastroenteritis (Bonheur), of which an estimated 3% to 13% of cases are caused by the protozoa Giardia (Chacon-Cruz). The rate of hospital admissions for gastroenteritis caused by Giardia is 2 per 100,000 individuals; Shigella is responsible for 2.4 per 100,000 (Chacon-Cruz).

Gastroenteritis occurs all over the world, although specific microorganisms may be more prevalent in one part of the world than another. It is estimated that each year, 3 billion to 5 billion cases of gastroenteritis occur around the world (Diskin). Gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus is most common in Asia, Africa, and South America. Vibrio bacteria cause gastroenteritis (cholera) in Asia. Shigella causes epidemics of gastroenteritis in Central and South America, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Gastroenteritis is caused by the protozoa E. histolytica in 10% of the world's population (Chacon-Cruz). In some developing countries, diarrhea is a leading cause of death and can reach epidemic proportions.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor