Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Influenza, A H1N1

influenza, a h1n1 in italiano (Italia)

Related Terms

  • Influenza
  • Swine Flu

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
488.11 - Influenza due to identified 2009 H1N1 influenza virus with pneumonia
488.12 - Influenza due to identified 2009 H1N1 influenza virus with other respiratory manifestations
488.19 - Influenza due to identified 2009 H1N1 influenza virus with other manifestations

Overview

Influenza A H1N1 (formerly called swine flu) is an acute respiratory infection caused by a subtype types of the influenza A virus in the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. This strain of influenza evolved from the combination of genes from human, pig, and bird flu (antigenic shift). The H1N1 strain of influenza of A virus is thought to have been responsible for 50 million deaths worldwide in the 1918-1919 Spanish flu pandemic. Since then, smaller outbreaks have occurred. In April 2009, the strain was detected in Mexico. By June 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the presence of a global pandemic (stage 6) after evidence the virus was found to be spreading in the southern hemisphere. WHO officially declared the pandemic over in August 2010. The H1N1 strain re-emerged during the 2013-2014 North American flu season. The vaccine for that year contained antibodies against this strain, limiting its health effects.

Influenza A virus strains are classified based on the initials of two virus surface proteins, followed by a number. In H1N1, H stands for hemagglutinin, an antigenic glycoprotein that allows the binding of the virus to the cell that is being infected. N stands for neuraminidase, an enzyme that allows the release of the virus from the host cell. All influenza A viruses contain both, but the structure of these proteins differs from strain to strain, due to rapid mutation in the genome of the virus. An H number and an N number are assigned to each virus strain, based on the subtype of these two proteins found in the strain. In humans the only common subtypes found are H 1, 2 and 3, and N 1 and 2.

The H1N1 virus is susceptible to the antiviral drugs oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) and zanamivir (Relenza®). Both are neuraminidase inhibitors; sporadic cases of virus resistance have been reported. However, prevention of the transmission has been stressed as the best resource to fight outbreaks. Prevention measures include a combination of measures such as immunization, has frequent hand washing, avoiding touch the own eyes, nose or mouth, minimizing social physical contact, avoiding crowded situations, and covering the nose and mouth with tissue or the upper sleeve when sneezing. The efficacy of the use of a facemask to decrease the risk of virus transmission is difficult to assess. Its use is recommended only for individuals at increased risk of severe illness from influenza, and in healthcare settings that involve contact with people who have an influenza-like illness (ILI).

Individuals with an ILI (fever and at least cough or sore throat, and possibly other symptoms such as runny nose, headaches, body aches, chills, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea) should stay home, avoid contact with other people as much as possible, and avoid travel, for at least 24 hours after the disappearance of fever, except to get medical care. Temperature should return to normal without the use of antipyretic drugs.

In August 2009, a vaccine against H1N1 flu became available. Initially it was given to help protect those at highest risk (pregnant women, household contacts, and caregivers for children younger than 6 months of age, healthcare personnel, all individuals from 6 months through 24 years of age, and individuals aged 25 through 64 with health conditions that put them in higher risk of medical complications from influenza). Afterwards it became available to protect anyone else who wanted to be immunized against H1N1.

As of 2014, the vaccine that protects against H1N1 (strain A [H1N1]pdm09) is included in the annual seasonal, trivalent or quadrivalent, influenza vaccine, which is administered by injection or as a nasal spray.
The vaccine is contraindicated when there is a history of anaphylaxis, hypersensitivity reaction, or other life-threatening allergic reactions to egg protein, or a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

For more detailed information about influenza, see Influenza.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

Cited

"2009-10 Influenza (Flu) Season." CDC. 1 Oct. 2009. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 27 Oct. 2009 <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/current-season.htm>.

General

Derlet, Robert W. "Influenza." eMedicine Specialties. 12 Aug. 2009. WebMD, LLC. 27 Oct. 2009 <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/219557-overview>.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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