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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Mammography


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Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
87.36 - Mammogram; Xerography of Breast
87.37 - Mammogram, Other

Related Terms

  • Mammogram

Overview

Mammography is an x-ray technique used to visualize the interior tissue of the breast. It is a procedure used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor breast disease.

Mammography most often is used to screen for breast cancer, because it allows tumors to be visualized while they are still too small to be felt by physical examination. Although there is some disagreement about the value of mammograms in younger women, the American Cancer Society makes the following recommendations: A baseline mammogram should be obtained for all women between the ages of 35 to 40 so that it may be compared to those obtained later. Women aged 40 to 49 should have a screening mammogram every 1 to 2 years. Women over age 50 should have a screening mammogram every year. However, women who are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer because of medical or family history may need to begin mammogram screening at an earlier age or have more frequent screenings.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Reason for Procedure

Mammography is most frequently is used as a routine screening device for detecting breast cancer at an early stage. It may be used to screen men with Klinefelter's syndrome who are at a high-risk of developing breast cancer. Mammography is also used to diagnose or monitor other breast disease. Images produced by mammography provide visual comparisons and/or differentiations between scar tissue, cysts, abscesses, and tumors, and help determine the degree of spread of an existing tumor (cancer staging).

Although a mammogram can identify an abnormality in breast tissue, further testing is required to determine whether or not the abnormality is cancerous (malignant). Diagnostic ultrasound may be used as an additional tool, but a sample (biopsy) of the suspected tissue needs to be analyzed to confirm the diagnosis.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



How Procedure is Performed

Mammography is performed on an outpatient basis without anesthesia. It causes only brief, mild discomfort. The individual stands or sits at the mammography unit, and the bare breast is placed on a platform (detector plate). A plate (compression paddle) is lowered to flatten the breast slightly to allow optimal visualization. The x-rays pass down through the breast and the resulting image is recorded either on x-ray film (film mammography) or a computer (digital mammography). Images may be taken from more than one angle by adjusting the breast and the angle of the mammography unit. Two images (craniocaudal and oblique) are usually taken from each breast during a screening or diagnostic mammogram. Should an abnormality be detected, additional images may be taken. Individuals who are experiencing nipple discharge may have a ductogram performed to highlight the milk duct and assist in the visualization of a mass. For this procedure, a fine plastic tube is inserted into a milk duct at the nipple and a small amount of an x-ray contrast medium is injected. The mammogram is then performed as usual. Mammograms are evaluated by a radiologist.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Prognosis

Mammography is a simple procedure that has no immediate adverse effects on the individual, although the radiation exposure has the potential to cause delayed effects such as increasing the probability of cancer development. Women in their 40s who undergo mammography every 2 years are more likely to discover breast cancer at an earlier stage, and are 44% less likely to be diagnosed with late-stage breast cancer. Mammography successfully detects about 61% of breast tumors in asymptomatic, unscreened women ("Regular Mammograms"). About 5% to 10% of mammograms taken in the US show abnormalities that require follow-up imaging or biopsy; however, the rate of false-positive results is high: 30% for a woman in her 40s, and 25% for women over 50 ("Mammography").

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Specialists

  • Radiologist

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Complications

No radiation complications are expected. Mammograms are done using relatively low levels of radiation. Some individuals become anxious at the idea of a mammogram or find exposing their breasts stressful.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Factors Influencing Duration

Disability is not associated with mammography.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

There are no work restrictions or accommodations associated with mammography.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

Cited

"Mammography." RadiologyInfo. 30 Apr. 2004. Radiological Society of North America, Inc. (RSNA). 27 Dec. 2004 <http://www.radiologyinfo.org/content/mammogram.htm#Preparation>.

"Regular Mammograms in a Woman's 40s Catch Breast Cancer at a Much Earlier Stage." Johns Hopkins Medicine. 15 Jan. 2003. 27 Dec. 2004 <http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/breastcenter/artemis/200302/feature5.html>.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor