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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Obesity


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Treatment

The five medically accepted treatment modalities are diet modification, exercise, behavior modification, drug therapy, and surgery. All these modalities, alone or in combination, are capable of inducing weight loss sufficient to produce significant health benefits in many obese individuals. Unfortunately, health benefits are not maintained if weight is regained. With the exception of surgery, it is difficult for most individuals to adhere to these modalities in a manner sufficient to maintain long-term weight loss.

Calorie restriction has remained the cornerstone of the treatment of obesity. The standard dietary recommendations for losing weight include reducing total calorie intake to 1,200 to 1,500 calories per day for women, and to 1,500 to 1,800 calories per day for men ("Obesity"). Saturated fats should be avoided in favor of unsaturated fats, but the low-calorie diet should remain balanced. Keeping a food journal of food and drink intake each day helps individuals to stay on track.

The addition of an exercise program to diet modification results in more weight loss than dieting alone and seems especially helpful in maintaining weight loss and preserving lean body mass. The exercise program should be preceded by a thorough medical examination, and both the intensity and duration of exercise sessions should increase gradually and be supervised by a health care professional. Moderate activity (walking, cycling up to 12 miles per hour) should be performed 30 minutes per day or more, 5 days a week or more. Vigorous activity that increases the heart rate (jogging, cycling faster than 12 miles per hour, and playing sports) should be performed 20 minutes or more, 3 days a week or more. Although vigorous workouts do not immediately burn great numbers of calories, the metabolism remains elevated after exercise. The more strenuous the exercise, the longer the metabolism continues to burn calories before returning to its resting level. Although the calories lost during the postexercise period are not high, over time they may count significantly for maintaining a healthy weight. Included in any regimen should be resistance or strength training 3 or 4 times a week. Even moderate regular exercise helps improve insulin sensitivity and in turn helps prevent heart disease and diabetes. Exercising regularly is critical because it improves psychological well-being, replaces sedentary habits that usually lead to snacking, and may act as a mild appetite suppressant.

Behavior modification for obesity refers to a set of principles and techniques designed to modify eating habits and physical activity. It is most helpful for mildly to moderately obese individuals. One frequently used form of behavior modification called cognitive therapy is very useful in preventing relapse after initial weight loss.

Drug options include anorexiants, which help individuals feel full after eating less food and which lower the appetite, and a drug that blocks the absorption of fat from the diet. These drugs are adjunctive rather than solo therapy; anorexiants should be prescribed only for short periods of time as an initial support while the individual gets used to the diet modification.

Surgery for weight loss (bariatric surgery), which carries significant morbidity and mortality, is reserved for well-informed and motivated severely obese adults (more than 180% overweight or whose BMI is greater than 40) whose condition has failed to respond to medical weight control. Surgery may also be considered for individuals with less severe obesity (BMI between 35 and 40) who have disabling joint disease, pulmonary insufficiency, heart disease, hypertension, or diabetes. The most common surgical procedures used to achieve weight loss are gastric bypass and gastric banding. Other procedures include gastroplasty, partial biliopancreatic bypass, and jejunoileal bypass.

After losing a great amount of weight due to bariatric surgery or a weight reduction program, some individuals choose a cosmetic procedure called body contouring, which involves the removal of excessive saggy fat and skin from the abdomen, arms, and/or thighs. Liposuction, which involves the suctioning of fat, is not a substitute for weight loss, but rather a procedure to treat isolated areas of fat that persist in spite of exercise and diet. It should be noted that if the individual gains weight after a liposuction procedure, fat is deposited in new sites that did not undergo liposuction.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor