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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Osteoarthritis


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Diagnosis

History: Pain is the most common presenting symptom among individuals seeking medical attention. Symptoms of osteoarthritis develop gradually. In the early stages, the only complaint may be morning stiffness that resolves within 30 minutes after starting activity. As the disease progresses, joints become swollen and painful. The pain worsens with increased activity and weight bearing throughout the day, and is relieved with rest. Range of motion may be limited. Stiffness becomes more intense. Certain movements produce a grating, grinding sound (crepitus) or a catching sensation. Some joints such as the knee may become unstable due to stretching of the ligaments that surround and support the joint, and loss of cartilage within the joint. The hip may lose its range of motion and becomes stiff and painful. Symptoms of osteoarthritis in the hip may sometimes be felt in the groin or the knee. Back pain is the most common symptom of osteoarthritis of the spine. When osteoarthritis occurs in the neck or lower back, bone overgrowth can press on the spinal nerves causing pain, numbness, and weakness in an arm or leg. The individual may report a history of specific injury years before developing symptoms.

Physical exam: In the early stages, few or no signs may be seen on physical examination. If the disease has progressed, deformity and contractures may be observed. Joints may be slightly warm to the touch and swollen from increased synovial fluid or bone overgrowth. Nodular swellings (Heberden's or Bouchard's nodes) may be felt or seen on the fingers. Knees may bend either inward (knock knees, genu valgum) or outward (bow-legs or genu varum) or may seem flexed in a fixed state (flexion contracture). Affected joints may be tender to the touch. Active and passive range of motion may cause pain. Crepitus may be present in affected joints during motion.

Tests: X-rays of the affected joints show a characteristic pattern of joint space narrowing, bony growths (spurs or osteophytes), bone cysts, and lipping at the joint surfaces. The signs visible on x-ray may not however, correlate with the individual's symptoms of pain, swelling, and stiffness. For example, an individual's knee x-rays may show large spurs, narrow joint space, and loose bodies floating in the joint. While this would indicate a longstanding problem, the individual may have had only mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. The individual may have sought medical care only after a seemingly insignificant injury or when prolonged activity aggravated the symptoms. X-rays do not reveal changes in cartilage. For this, an MRI is required, but it is not normally used for this diagnostic purpose.

Laboratory tests are done only to rule out another diagnosis and to evaluate individual’s general health status. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, complete blood count (CBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and antinuclear antibody test are performed if an inflammatory process is suspected. These tests usually are normal or negative in osteoarthritis. Examination of joint fluid (arthrocentesis) may be performed to rule out infection, gout, or rheumatoid arthritis. A test for rheumatoid factor (RF) also may be done to rule out rheumatoid arthritis.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor