Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder


Related Terms

  • Negative Personality Disorder
  • Negativistic Personality Disorder

Specialists

  • Clinical Psychologist
  • Psychiatrist

Factors Influencing Duration

The progress and effectiveness of psychotherapy and the individual's level of functioning all affect the length of disability. Instability associated with the failure of support systems will lengthen disability. Substance abuse, suicidal gestures, and coexisting depression and anxiety can prolong recovery.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
301.84 - Passive-aggressive Personality Disorder

Diagnosis

History: The psychiatric interview and mental status exam are the primary tools used to diagnose passive-aggressive personality disorder. Diagnostic criteria according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) require a pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance. The disorder begins by early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts, with at least 4 of the following: passively resists fulfilling routine social and work tasks, complains of being misunderstood and unappreciated by others, is sullen and argumentative, unreasonably criticizes and scorns authority, expresses envy and resentment toward those apparently more fortunate, voices exaggerated and persistent complaints of personal misfortune, and alternates between hostile defiance and contrition. The diagnosis cannot be made if the behavior occurs exclusively during major depressive episodes or if it is better explained by dysthymic disorder (DSM-IV-TR).

Passive-aggressive personality disorder is no longer recognized in the DSM-5; it is only mentioned in the chapter about personality disorders as an example of "other specified personality disorder and unspecified personality disorder", in which either (1) the personality of the individual meets the general criteria for a personality disorder, and there are traits of several personality disorders, but the criteria for a specific personality disorder are not met; or (2) the individual's personality meets the general criteria for a personality disorder that is not included in the DSM-5 classification (such as passive-aggressive personality disorder) (DSM-5).

Physical exam: A physical exam is not helpful in diagnosing this disorder. Observation of the individual's orientation, dress, mannerisms, behavior, and content of speech may be helpful.

Tests: A variety of psychological tests can be employed to help identify and classify personality disorders. The interpretation of these tests by a professional is used in conjunction with the history.

Note: It must be kept in mind that just because a physical diagnosis cannot be established as the cause of the presenting symptomatology, it does not necessarily mean that the cause is a mental one. That is to say that the presence of medically unexplained symptomatology does not necessarily establish the presence of a psychiatric condition. The first step in identifying the presence of a mental disorder is excluding the presence of malingering and/or of factitious disorder. Although factitious disorder is conscious and purposeful, it is classified as a psychiatric disorder. The strong need for this step is especially true whenever there is a medicolegal context associated with the presenting problem(s). Additionally, using DSM-5 and/or ICD-9-CM or ICD-10-CM, the clinician will find that many presentations fail to fit completely within the boundaries of a single mental disorder. There are systematic ways to go about making psychiatric diagnoses, however.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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