Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Pericardiectomy


Related Terms

  • Pericardectomy

Specialists

  • Cardiovascular Internist
  • Thoracic Surgeon

Comorbid Conditions

Factors Influencing Duration

Length of disability may be influenced by the individual's response to treatment, the age of the individual, the severity or duration of the disease, the extent of cardiac injury, or any complications.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
37.31 - Pericardiectomy

Overview

Pericardiectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the membranous sac that holds the heart in place (pericardium). Surgery is performed through an incision on the front or side of the chest. In most cases, the entire pericardium is removed (radical pericardiectomy).

Pericardiectomy is typically performed to correct chronic constrictive pericarditis, in which a rind of thick scar tissue forms around the heart, resulting in compromise of cardiac function.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Reason for Procedure

Pericardiectomy is usually the treatment of choice for chronic constrictive pericarditis, a condition in which the pericardium becomes scarred and thickened and contracts, interfering with the heart's action. It is most often the result of a viral infection of the pericardium.

Pericardiectomy can also be performed for recurrent fluid filling the pericardial sac (pericardial effusion), which usually occurs in individuals with cancer.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



How Procedure is Performed

Pericardiectomy is an invasive surgical procedure performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. An incision is made either on the front of the chest (median sternotomy) or on the side (anterolateral thoracotomy). The thick scar tissue surrounding the heart is then removed. The heart-lung machine is on standby in case significant bleeding occurs.

In addition, pericardiectomy can be performed through a thorascope. Thoracoscopic pericardiectomy is an invasive surgical procedure also performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. An incision is made on the side of the chest between the sixth and seventh ribs, and a video thorascope is inserted. Three additional incisions are made between the fifth and sixth ribs on the front of the chest and on the side to insert grasping and cutting instruments. The pericardium is then removed. Several days in the hospital are required to recover from this procedure, though the hospital stay is typically shorter than for a median sternotomy.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Prognosis

Pericardiectomy is an invasive procedure that has significant risk. Operative death rate is between 5% and 15%, although the procedure is worth the risk because of the serious nature of constrictive pericarditis (O'Brien).

The results of the procedure are generally excellent. Eighty percent to ninety percent of individuals receive long-term benefit from pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis (O'Brien).

Pericardiectomy for cancerous pericardial effusions is also typically met with good success, although the seriousness of the underlying disease affects survival.

Recovery from pericardiectomy involves healing of the painful chest incision and maintaining good lung function that may be impaired due to the pain of deep breathing.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Rehabilitation

Strenuous exercise should be avoided for 3 to 4 weeks while the incision heals. Deep breathing and coughing exercises should be performed several times a day for several weeks. Early return to light exercise (walking, stationary bike) is also beneficial in healing and maintaining good lung function.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Complications

Operative complications of pericardiectomy include excessive bleeding, injury to nerves or vessels, cardiac injury, or even death. Postoperative infections, such as wound infections or mediastinitis, may result.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

Strenuous physical activity may need to be replaced by sedentary work responsibilities for several weeks following the procedure.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

Cited

Nunnamker, Lonnie, and Terrence X. O'Brien. "Pericarditis, Constrictive." eMedicine. Eds. Eric Vanderbush, et al. 4 Apr. 2004. Medscape. 22 Oct. 2004 <http://emedicine.com/med/topic1782.htm>.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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