Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Pneumonia


Related Terms

  • Atypical Pneumonia
  • Bacterial Pneumonia
  • Bronchopneumonia
  • Community-acquired Pneumonia
  • Eaton's Pneumonia
  • Hospital-acquired Pneumonia
  • Lobar Pneumonia
  • Nosocomial Pneumonia
  • Pneumonitis
  • Primary Atypical Pneumonia
  • Viral Pneumonia
  • Walking Pneumonia

Differential Diagnosis

Specialists

  • Critical Care Internist
  • Emergency Medicine Physician
  • Infectious Disease Internist
  • Internal Medicine Physician
  • Pulmonologist

Comorbid Conditions

  • Alcoholism
  • Chronic cardiopulmonary disorders
  • Chronic medical conditions (e.g., cystic fibrosis, diabetes, kidney disease)
  • Immunosuppression (e.g., AIDS, chemotherapy, cancer, immunosuppressive medications)
  • Tobacco abuse

Factors Influencing Duration

Length of disability may be influenced by the age of the individual, general state of health, underlying chronic medical conditions, severity of the pneumonia, complications, immunocompetence, type of organism causing the pneumonia, susceptibility of the organism to prescribed treatment, individual's compliance with treatment, and cigarette smoking.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
480.0 - Viral Pneumonia Due to Adenovirus
480.1 - Viral Pneumonia Due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus
480.2 - Viral Pneumonia Due to Parainfluenza Virus
480.8 - Viral Pneumonia Due to Other Virus Not Elsewhere Classified
480.9 - Viral Pneumonia, Unspecified
481 - Pneumococcal Pneumonia
482.0 - Pneumonia Due to Klebsiella Pneumoniae
482.1 - Pneumonia Due to Pseudomonas
482.2 - Pneumonia Due to Hemophilus Influenzae
482.30 - Pneumonia Due to Streptococcus, Unspecified
482.31 - Pneumonia Due to Streptococcus; Group A
482.32 - Pneumonia Due to Streptococcus; Group B
482.39 - Pneumonia Due to Streptococcus; Other Streptococcus
482.40 - Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus, Unspecified
482.41 - Methicillin susceptible pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus; MSSA pneumonia; Pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus NOS
482.42 - Methicillin resistant pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus
482.49 - Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus, Other Staphylococcus
482.81 - Pneumonia Due to Other Specified Bacteria, Anaerobes; Gram-negative Anaerobes; Bacteroides (Melaninogenicus)
482.82 - Pneumonia Due to Other Specified Bacteria, Escherichia coli [E. coli]
482.89 - Pneumonia Due to Other Specified Bacteria, Other Specified Bacteria
482.9 - Pneumonia Due to Other Specified Bacteria, Bacterial Pneumonia Unspecified
483.1 - Pneumonia Due to Other Specified Organism, Chlamydia
483.8 - Pneumonia Due to Other Specified Organism, Other Specified Organism
484.1 - Pneumonia in Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease
484.3 - Pneumonia in Whooping Cough
484.5 - Pneumonia in Anthrax
484.6 - Pneumonia in Aspergillosis
484.7 - Pneumonia in Other Systemic Mycoses
484.8 - Pneumonia in Other Infectious Diseases Classified Elsewhere
485 - Bronchopneumonia, Organism Unspecified
486 - Pneumonia, Organism Unspecified
487.0 - Influenza with Pneumonia
507.0 - Pneumonitis Due to Inhalation of Food or Vomitus

Overview

Pneumonia is a general term for infection of the lungs. Infection can be caused by a variety of microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, or fungi resulting in an inflammatory response within the lung tissue. The tiny air sacs in the lungs (alveoli) fill with fluid, mucus, and dead white blood cells and debris (pus), interfering with the lung's ability to oxygenate the blood. This process can occur gradually or quickly, depending on the type of infectious organism, the amount of infectious agent the individual was exposed to, and the ability of the body's immune system to fight off the infection. Pneumonia can be mild enough to be treated as an outpatient or severe enough to require hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU).

Several classification systems are used to define the types of pneumonias. One system classifies pneumonia by its anatomic location within the lungs. Lobar pneumonia involves most or all of the alveoli in a single lobe of the lung. Bronchopneumonia starts in the large and small airways (bronchi and bronchioles) and then spreads to patches of tissue in one or both lungs. Interstitial pneumonia involves the space around the alveoli (interstitial tissue).

Pneumonia is also classified according to whether the symptoms and causes represent typical or atypical pneumonia. Sometimes called "walking pneumonia," atypical pneumonia often affects otherwise healthy young people and is usually, but not always, associated with milder symptoms. Atypical pneumonia results from infection by one of three bacteria-like organisms: Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydophila (previously Chlamydia) pneumoniae (the latter transmitted by birds). Its onset is usually more gradual and the course is more protracted than so-called "typical" pneumonia, which is commonly caused by viruses and bacteria.

Pneumonia may also be classified by where the individual was exposed to the infectious agent; pneumonia acquired in a hospital setting is referred to as nosocomial pneumonia, while pneumonia acquired in the individual's daily environment is referred to as community-acquired pneumonia. This can be important in making treatment decisions since nosocomial infections are more likely to be resistant to antibiotics. Aspiration pneumonia refers to pneumonia caused by accidental inhalation (aspiration) of food, drink, or vomit into the lungs. Swallowing difficulties, or conditions such as alcohol intoxication, confusion, or decreased mental alertness, may lead to aspiration pneumonia.

The most important classification system is based on the organism causing the infection. For example, pneumonia can be referred to as bacterial or viral pneumonia, depending on the infectious agent.

Bacterial pneumonia is more common among adults. Bacteria can enter the lungs via inhalation of airborne bacteria, especially if someone nearby has just sneezed or coughed; through the bloodstream from an infection elsewhere in the body; or by aspiration of organisms already growing in the individual's mouth or throat. The most common causes of bacterial pneumonia include Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called pneumococcus), Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas species, and Escherichia coli.

Viral infections account for up to one-half of all cases of pneumonia, depending on the age group, and are most common in children and individuals over 65 (ALA). Influenza A virus is the most common cause, followed by respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, and adenovirus. Other viruses that are less common causes of pneumonia include varicella-zoster virus, hantavirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and measles virus. Antiviral medications may be helpful in treating viral pneumonias; antibiotics are not effective against viruses.

Other microorganisms such as fungi, and protozoa (one-celled organisms), can cause pneumonia. Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly P. carinii), a fungus, is a common cause of pneumonia in individuals with compromised immune systems, especially individuals with HIV.

Because pneumonia occurs when pathogenic agents overwhelm the defenses that normally protect the lower respiratory tract, a recent illness such as influenza (a viral infection that affects mainly the nose, throat, bronchi and sometimes the lungs) can pave the way for bacterial pneumonia which can develop rapidly. This is called a "secondary infection," and was one reason so many people died during the influenza epidemic of 1918.

Incidence and Prevalence: It is estimated that 4 million cases of community-acquired pneumonia occur annually in the United States, of which 20%to 25% are severe enough to warrant hospitalization. Every year in the US, about 4 million individuals are diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (Schraufnagel). Nosocomial pneumonia is diagnosed in up to 25% of all intensive care unit (ICU) patients. About half of all cases of pneumonia occur in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa ( Schraufnagel).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Causation and Known Risk Factors

High-risk groups include people over the age of 64, children younger than 2 years. People who have a lung disease or other serious illness are also at higher risk for developing complications such as pneumonia. Some examples are asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (chronic bronchitis, emphysema), heart failure, sickle cell disease, weakened immune system due to disease or medication, and diabetes, People who are in the hospital ICU, especially those who are on a ventilator, are at increased risk of pneumonia. Smoking cigarettes, abusing alcohol, or being undernourished also increases the risk of pneumonia. A recent cold or flu, or exposure to certain chemicals, pollutants, or toxic fumes increases one's risk of pneumonia (NIH).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Diagnosis

History: A thorough history including other medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, COPD, organ transplant, sickle cell disease, HIV), occupation, travel, hobbies/recreational activities and alcohol/substance abuse is essential. Clinical presentation ranges from a mildly ill ambulatory individual to a critically ill individual in septic shock or respiratory failure. Common symptoms of pneumonia include fever or chills, shortness of breath (dyspnea) especially with exertion, pain with deep breathing or coughing, headache, and muscle pain (myalgia). Cough may produce sputum and occasionally blood; the color and odor of the sputum can provide clues to the infectious agent. Chest pain may occur when inhaling because of inflammation in the membranes lining the lungs (pleurisy) and the lung tissues. Breathing may be very labored.

Symptoms of viral and atypical pneumonia are different in that chills are not accompanied by fever, and initially the cough is dry and nonproductive (no sputum is coughed up). Flu-like symptoms include headache, myalgia, and weakness. Within 12 to 36 hours, shortness of breath may increase, accompanied by a worsening cough that now produces a small amount of sputum. Typical respiratory symptoms may be more subtle in the elderly and in individuals taking corticosteroids or aspirin. These individuals may instead be lethargic, confused as a result of a lack of oxygen supply to the brain, and have labored, rapid respirations.

Physical exam: Vital signs (i.e., heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature) can offer clues to the severity of the pneumonia. Physical exam may reveal labored breathing with use of accessory muscles in the neck, chest, and abdomen. In severe pneumonia, the individual may exhibit a respiratory rate above 30 breaths per minute (tachypnea). Listening through a stethoscope (auscultation) may reveal abnormal breath sounds that indicate fluid in the lungs (rales or crackles) or areas of infection where air exchange is not occurring (consolidative breath sounds). Percussion can confirm the presence of areas of dullness (consolidation). The individual may present with confusion and lethargy due to lack of sufficient oxygen in the blood.

Tests: Laboratory testing usually includes a complete blood count (CBC); a high white blood cell count is typical for bacterial pneumonia but not for viral pneumonia. A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) may signal impending overwhelming systemic infection (sepsis) and a poor outcome. Gram stain and culture of sputum is important. Blood cultures are no longer recommended for all admitted community acquired pneumonia patients (Afshar). Antigen or antibody testing of serum or other body fluids may be indicated for some pathogens.

Cultures and antibiotic sensitivity testing of sputum can identify the infecting microorganism within 24 to 48 hours and determine its antibiotic sensitivity and resistance. This is important not only for individual medication treatment decisions but also because patterns of antibiotic resistance can help determine how infections spread in populations (epidemiology). A Gram stain performed at the initial visit can give the physician clues about the identity of the causative bacteria (Gram-positive or negative) and aid in the choice of the most appropriate antibiotic even before culture results become available. In mild to moderate pneumonia, cultures and sensitivity may not be performed unless the individual does not respond to treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics.

Routine cultures detect only bacteria. Special cultures must be done to detect viruses, and these tests are not performed in the average hospital clinical laboratory. Serology studies can identify certain microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa) by identifying antigens from the microorganism itself or antibodies the individual produces against the infecting microorganism.

A chest x-ray can establish the diagnosis of pneumonia, determine the extent of lung infection, and help track progress during treatment. Certain patterns seen on x-ray may be associated with specific types of pneumonia. Non-invasive testing with pulse oximetry can monitor blood oxygen levels or blood oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels can be measured by sampling blood from an artery and analyzing it; blood oxygen levels may be low.

Examination of the main airways of the lungs using a flexible, fiberoptic scope (bronchoscopy) or surgical removal of lung tissue for microscopic examination (open lung biopsy) may be necessary to determine the exact cause of pneumonia in unusual cases.

The critical decision at initial presentation is "Does this individual need to be hospitalized for treatment?" The decision to hospitalize is based on risk factors including age, presence of underlying medical conditions, and findings on history, physical exam, laboratory testing, and x-ray. If the individual is not hospitalized, adequate follow-up as an outpatient is essential. This usually includes a follow-up x-ray to ensure resolution of the pneumonia.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Treatment

Antibiotics are the treatment for bacterial pneumonia. In mild to moderate cases, broad-spectrum oral antibiotics that cover the most likely causative bacteria are given. If an individual does not respond to the antibiotic therapy in 2 to 3 days, cultures and antibiotic sensitivity tests may be performed to identify the causative organism and to aid in selection of an antibiotic with a higher degree of specificity. The increasing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics makes it more difficult to predict which antibiotic will be effective without confirmatory sensitivity testing. The rise of antibiotic resistance is a very important reason why antibiotics should be used judiciously and only when absolutely needed.

Antiviral medications are available to treat several specific viruses but are reserved for more severe infections. Viral pneumonia does not respond to antibiotic therapy.

Supportive therapy may include increased fluid intake (hydration) and agents to thin and mobilize secretions (mucolytic and mucokinetic agents), cough suppressants, and medication to reduce fever (antipyretics) and pain (analgesics). Oxygen may be administered if the individual becomes oxygen-deprived (hypoxic).

Individuals with severe pneumonia often require hospitalization in order to provide extra oxygen, respiratory therapy, intravenous antibiotics, and intravenous fluids. Individuals with multiple risk factors indicating poor outcome from pneumonia (e.g., the very young, the elderly, those with chronic underlying medical conditions) may also be hospitalized for closer observation.

Pneumococcal vaccine protects against the severity of the most common strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria and is recommended for all adults over age 65, residents of long-term care facilities, and individuals with underlying chronic disease or compromised immune systems. A booster dose of vaccine may be recommended 6 to 10 years after the initial vaccination.

A vaccine is also available against the influenza virus. This vaccine is modified every year to offer protection against the strains of influenza virus most likely to cause infection in that particular year. Annual vaccination is recommended for anyone who may be exposed to influenza. Neither the pneumococcal nor the influenza vaccine offers complete protection. Although vaccination reduces the risk of infection, an immunized individual can still develop pneumonia. Good hand washing is a valuable but underutilized means of prevention.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Prognosis

Outcome for an individual diagnosed with pneumonia depends on the individual’s overall health and immunocompetence, the virulence of the organism causing the pneumonia, and the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment. Most cases of mild to moderate bacterial pneumonia respond well to oral antibiotic therapy. However, elderly or debilitated individuals may respond poorly to treatment. Death may occur as a result of respiratory failure.

About 20% to 25% of individuals with community-acquired pneumonia require hospitalization; most of these are infants or adults over age 64. Almost two-thirds of hospitalizations and 90% of deaths from pneumonia occur in those older than age 65. In 2006, there were about 55,000 deaths from pneumonia. Hospital-acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia is the leading cause of death from hospital-acquired infections accounting for one-half to one-third of deaths (Torres). Nosocomial pneumonia has a 25 to 50% mortality rate (Torres). Pneumonia and influenza (a leading cause of viral pneumonia) are the ninth leading cause of death in the US, with most deaths occurring among the elderly (Murphy). Pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children under age 5 worldwide.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Rehabilitation

Physical and respiratory therapy, in conjunction with specific and supportive therapy, can be an important aspect of the treatment and rehabilitation of seriously ill individuals with underlying chronic medical problems who have been hospitalized for pneumonia. Physical therapy improves ventilation by using breathing exercises, vibrating the trunk or clapping the hands against the individual’s chest wall (percussion) to break up lung secretions over the area of lung involvement, and postural drainage techniques to mobilize lung secretions so they can be coughed up.

Once the symptoms of pneumonia subside and breathing becomes easier, focus is then placed on strength and endurance exercises by incorporating aerobic-type activity into the rehabilitation program. A physical therapist experienced in cardiac and pulmonary rehabilitation keeps a daily log of the individual's blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac rhythm. By building endurance, the individual increases resistance to fatigue and the ability to work. As endurance increases without shortness of breath, the individual begins active upper and lower extremity exercises using very light resistance. In the final phase of rehabilitation, light aerobic activities such as brisk walking and low-resistance bicycling are added.

Cardiopulmonary therapy can be a lengthy process to achieve increased pulmonary stamina and is reserved for individuals who have had severe pneumonia with underlying medical conditions. Because most pulmonary disorders are managed with drug therapy, it is important that individuals with pneumonia tell therapists what medications they are taking as many of these drugs alter the acute and chronic response to exercise.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Complications

Viral infection can leave the individual more susceptible to bacterial infection. Pneumonia can cause fluid to accumulate in the space between the lung and the chest wall (pleural effusion). This fluid can then become infected (pleural empyema) and the infection can spread throughout the body via the bloodstream (sepsis). Septic shock is a severe complication that occurs when the rapidly multiplying bacteria release toxins into the bloodstream. Other serious complications include respiratory failure or the development of an abscess in the lung. Individuals with chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, or lung disease often experience a worsening of their underlying medical condition during pneumonia.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

Work restrictions are determined on an individual basis. Individuals may need to avoid inhaled irritants such as dust, fumes, cigarette smoke, and cold air. Strenuous activity needs to be temporarily avoided. Longer, more frequent rest breaks are required until physical stamina returns.

Risk: In an immune compromised individual, working with heavy public contact, indigent or incarcerated populations, and in health care settings, may place the individual at increased risk of further or recurrent infection. A person with symptom onset within the last 24 to 48 hours is at a more infectious state and should avoid working in settings with immune compromised individuals. Some risk can be mitigated by frequent hand washing, gloves, or masks.

Capacity: During active infection, capacity will be reduced related to the type and severity of pneumonia. Once healed, capacity should return to pre-illness state. Capacity can be evaluated with pulmonary function tests (PFT) and stress testing.

Tolerance: Milder infections may be managed with over the counter analgesics, which may permit an earlier return to work in recovering individuals.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Maximum Medical Improvement

60 days.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Failure to Recover

If an individual fails to recover within the expected maximum duration period, the reader may wish to consider the following questions to better understand the specifics of an individual's medical case.

Regarding diagnosis:

  • Has individual had a recent history of fever, chills, shortness of breath, chest pain, muscle aches, or flu-like symptoms?
  • Were vital signs abnormal on physical examination?
  • Were abnormal breath sounds noted on physical exam?
  • Was the diagnosis of pneumonia confirmed with a chest x-ray, Gram stain, and/or positive sputum cultures?
  • Were cultures and sensitivity tests of sputum and/or blood done to help identify the causative organism?
  • Was the underlying cause (bacterial, fungal, viral, or other infectious agent) identified?
  • Did individual have bronchoscopy? Open lung biopsy?
  • Were other conditions with similar symptoms such as bronchitis, COPD, asthma, pulmonary embolus (PE), bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, cancer, congestive heart failure (CHF), and ARDS ruled out?

Regarding treatment:

  • Was individual hospitalized?
  • Did individual receive appropriate antimicrobial treatment?
  • Has individual been compliant with and responded favorably to prescribed treatment?
  • Did individual receive appropriate supportive care (i.e., respiratory care, fluids, antipyretics, or analgesics)?
  • If individual was treated as an outpatient, was there appropriate follow-up including a follow-up x-ray?
  • If a smoker, was individual counseled regarding tobacco cessation?
  • Was individual counseled regarding appropriate immunizations?

Regarding prognosis:

  • Was individual compliant with the treatment recommendations?
  • Has adequate time elapsed for complete recovery?
  • If the symptoms persisted despite treatment, was a repeat culture and sensitivity done to rule out the possibility of antibiotic-resistant bacteria or a secondary infection?
  • Does individual have any existing conditions (e.g., advanced age, immunosuppression, chronic lung disease, or other chronic illness) that could affect recovery and prognosis? If so, are these conditions being addressed in the treatment plan?
  • Has individual experienced any associated conditions or complications that may influence recovery and prognosis (e.g., pleural effusion, pleural empyema, septic shock, respiratory failure)?
  • What work or environmental factors affect individual's recovery or prolong disability?

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

Cited

"Pneumonia: The Forgotten Killer of Children." UNICEF. 31 Oct. 2014 <http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_35626.html>.

"Who is at Risk for Pneumonia?" National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute. 1 Mar. 2011. National Institutes of Health (NIH). 31 Oct. 2014 <http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu/atrisk.html>.

Afshar, N., et al. "Blood Cultures for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Are They Worthy of Two Quality Measures? A Systematic Review." Journal of Hospital Medicine 4 (2009): 112-123.

Amanullah, Shakeel, et al. "Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia Imaging." eMedicine. Eds. Kavita Garg, et al. 21 Jun. 2013. Medscape. 31 Oct. 2014 <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/363083-overview>.

American Lung Association. "Pneumonia Fact Sheet." American Lung Association. 31 Oct. 2014 <http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/influenza/in-depth-resources/pneumonia-fact-sheet.html>.

Kamangar, Nader. "Bacterial Pneumonia." eMedicine. Eds. Zab Mosenifar, et al. 8 Oct. 2014. Medscape. 31 Oct. 2014 <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/300157-overview>.

Mosenifar, Zab. "Viral Pneumonia." eMedicine. Eds. Ryland P. Byrd, et al. 21 Oct. 2014. Medscape. 31 Oct. 2014 <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/300455-overview>.

Murphy, S. L., J. Q. Xu, and K. D. Kochanek. "Deaths: Final Data for 2010." National Vital Statistics Reports 61 4 (2013):

Schraufnagel, D. E., ed. Breathing in America: Disease, Progress, and Hope. American Thoracic Society, 2011.

Torres, A., M. Ferrer, and J. R. Badia. "Treatment Guidelines and Outcomes of Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia." Clinical Infectious Diseases 51 Suppl 1 (2010): S48-S53.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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