Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)


Overview

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a specific strain of S. aureus bacteria that is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; these include methicillin, a penicillin-like antibiotic, and other more commonly used antibiotics such as oxacillin (earning it the name oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [ORSA]), penicillin, and amoxicillin. MRSA often is resistant to other antibiotics as well. Antibiotic resistant organisms do not die as intended when exposed to an antibiotic that normally would be expected to kill them. MRSA is called a "superbug" because of its strong antibiotic resistance and its ability to complicate treatment of staphylococcal infections.

Staphylococci are Gram-positive organisms; that is, they test positive when a sample of infected material is cultured and stained with Gram stain. They are also aerobic organisms, indicating that they are dependent on oxygen to fuel their metabolism. Staphylococcal organisms are responsible for causing a variety of diseases and conditions, including abscesses, gastroenteritis, endocarditis, hospital-acquired bacteremia associated with the use of catheters and IV equipment, skin infections, wound and burn infections, pneumonia, and meningitis. Staphylococci also produce bacterial toxins (i.e., exotoxins, enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins, toxic-shock-syndrome toxin or TSST-1) that can cause both local infection and serious systemic illness that may result in shock (toxic shock syndrome), organ failure, and death.

MRSA has two sub-types based on the origins of the infection. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) is found in hospitalized individuals and in those who have had recent surgery or have been in a hospital or other healthcare facility (e.g., rehabilitation or long-term care facilities) within a year prior to developing infection. Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) is found in relatively healthy individuals who have not recently been in a healthcare facility. Infection spreads within the community among individuals who share personal items (e.g., drinking glasses, utensils, towels, razors) or sports equipment, or who are enclosed for extended periods within the same physical space (e.g., schools or daycare facilities).

Colonies of S. aureus are consistently found in the anterior of the nares or high up in the nose. Other areas of colonization include the armpits, groin, anus, and on the skin (Mody). Hospitalized individuals, hospital personnel, and healthcare workers generally have higher rates of S. aureus colonization (Eveillard). Although the presence of the organism does not result in disease in the majority of individuals, it may more easily overwhelm the immune system and cause infection in those who have an existing skin injury, other significant injury, chronic illness such as diabetes, or whose immune system function is compromised (immunosuppression). MRSA is the most pathogenic of all staphylococci, most often causing skin infections, pneumonia, infection of the heart valves (endocarditis), and bone marrow infection (osteomyelitis). S. aureus also has the ability to clot (coagulate) blood (coagulase-positive staphylococci), a property which is used in the classification of staphylococci.

Incidence and Prevalence: In the US about 30% of healthy individuals are colonized with S. aureus (Kuehnert; Gorwitz). Between 2001/2002 and 2003/2004 the prevalence of S. aureus colonization decreased from 32.4% to 28.6%; however, MRSA colonization increased from 0.8% to 1.5% (Gorwitz). In 2011 there were about 62,500 cases of MRSA in the US, down from 82,000 in 2007/2008 (CDC). During that period the rate of invasive MRSA infections declined from 27.98 to 20.06 per 100,000 population, representing a decline of 25.92% (CDC).

MRSA is found worldwide. Carriers are at higher risk of infection and are presumed to be an important source of transmission to others (Chambers).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor