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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Psychotherapy, Group


Text Only Home | Graphic-Rich Site | Overview | Reason for Procedure | How Procedure is Performed | Prognosis | Specialists | Complications | Factors Influencing Duration | Length of Disability | Ability to Work | Medical Codes | References

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
94.44 - Group Psychotherapy, Other

Related Terms

  • Group Therapy
  • Therapist-guided Support Group

Overview

Group psychotherapy is a procedure or technique used for the treatment of emotional disorders such as depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorders or behavioral disorders such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, or postpartum depression. One or two therapists guide a group that is typically limited to ten to twelve individuals. Psychological changes in the group members are facilitated by their interaction with each other and the therapist(s).

Some therapy groups have specific themes or commonalities among members such as recovery from substance abuse, management of panic attacks, or grief recovery. The therapist selects other groups based on knowledge of each individual's emotional or developmental issues. The group acts as a miniature version of society. What happens in the group is similar to how an individual's strengths, weaknesses, and interpersonal interactions play out in the world. Sooner or later, each individual's characteristic difficulties in relating to others such as anger, arrogance, or impatience come out in full view before the group.

Receiving feedback from both the therapist and fellow group members allows the individual to identify his or her troublesome interpersonal behavior, express feelings associated with the behavior, and get a more objective view of the behavior and its effect on others. The intent is for the individual to gain insight into how they behave with others and how this behavior is related to personal issues, thus allowing the individual to identify and practice behavioral and relational changes.

Therapeutic factors identified as occurring in group therapy include feeling accepted by other members of the group, experiencing that the group is working toward a common goal, correction of distortions in interpersonal relationships, having the chance to work through old family and interpersonal conflicts, learning what another individual experiences and feels, and becoming hopeful from the example of others.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Reason for Procedure

Group therapy is used to treat a wide variety of psychological disorders with the goal of symptom relief. A more ambitious aim may also be modification of personality or behavior change such as seen in an eating disorder or staying at home out of fear (agoraphobia). Group psychotherapy is often as effective as individual psychotherapy. It is currently being used for groups with the same medical condition such as breast cancer or heart attack to improve the quality of life and extend length of survival.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



How Procedure is Performed

Group psychotherapy generally treats 10 to 12 individuals at the same time and is facilitated by one or two therapists. Meetings are usually held weekly at 1 to 2 hours per meeting and may be time-limited (e.g., lasting 12 sessions). The therapist screens individuals to determine suitability for group therapy. Individuals agreeing to group psychotherapy should have the motivation to change and be able to perform the group tasks. Tasks include regular attendance, agreeing on the therapeutic goals, being committed to the work of therapy, listening respectfully to others without inappropriate interruptions, and keeping confidential about what others say during a group session.

Most groups go through several developmental stages including a formative stage, a period of initial resistance to change and feedback from therapists or peers, the development of a feeling of cohesiveness among group members, emergence of solutions and the ability of the group to achieve its goals, and a period of closure.

The therapist initially introduces group members and rules of interaction, maintains time limits, identifies issues that need to be pursued either in the group or individually, and provides general direction. As the group matures, the therapist may take a less directive role, allowing individuals to accept leadership roles, as appropriate. Several group therapy models can be used depending on the purpose of the group. In general, however, each individual has an opportunity to present his or her feelings or issues for a short period each session. From time to time, individuals have a longer period during the sessions for more intense focus on personal issues and behaviors.

Techniques include the identification, expression, and release of feelings; feedback (objective observations or shared feelings) about an individual's perceptions, behavior, or issues; role-playing of difficult anticipated encounters with significant others; or structured group exercises to identify specific feelings or issues.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Prognosis

Most group members experience some decrease in symptoms such as social anxiety, an improved ability to interact with others, or increased awareness of how their behavior affects others. A study showed that group therapy was effective for adolescents who try to harm themselves either by attempting to commit suicide and self-cutting (Wood 462).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Specialists

  • Clinical Psychologist
  • Psychiatrist

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Complications

Some individuals may not have reached clinical stability to function in a group setting or have a level of tolerance for group feedback.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Factors Influencing Duration

Length of disability is influenced by the duration and severity of any underlying mental illness, substance abuse or dependency, the individual's social support system, and therapy group participation.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

Work restrictions and accommodations are related to the specific disorders. A flexible work schedule may be helpful but most group psychotherapy sessions should be scheduled during the individual's personal time.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

Cited

Wood, et.al., Allison. "Randomized Trial of Group Therapy for Repeated Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents." Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40 11 (2001): 462-470.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor