|Pyuria is the presence of white blood cells (leukocytes) in the urine. Pyuria is not a diagnosis. It is a laboratory finding in many diseases, most commonly urinary tract infections (UTI). Pyuria usually indicates that bacteria have invaded the upper or lower urinary tract (bacteriuria) invoking an inflammatory response of the lining of the urinary tract (urothelium) in that location. Pyuria may also be found in the absence of infection and is frequently asymptomatic. When pyuria is present without the presence of bacteria, its cause is unclear, although "silent" or unrecognized kidney infection may be suspected as well as tuberculosis, renal stones, or cancer. Almost half of chronically incontinent individuals or those with indwelling catheters, (primarily elderly long-term care patients), exhibit asymptomatic pyuria. However, urinary tract infection can also be asymptomatic in the elderly. In the absence of infection, asymptomatic pyuria is not usually treated.|
Risk: Urinary tract infection, especially urethritis, has an almost certain risk of being accompanied by pyuria. There are no known risk factors for asymptomatic pyuria other than chronic incontinence or urinary catheterization.
Incidence and Prevalence: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection found in people of all ages, consequently the incidence of pyuria corresponds to the large numbers of people diagnosed with UTI. UTI occurs nearly 50 times more often in women than men under the age of 50 and increases in both men and women over age 50, with the female-to-male ratio decreasing as prostate disease becomes more prevalent among older men (Beers).
Source: Medical Disability Advisor