Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Reduction of Fracture or Dislocation


Related Terms

  • Closed Reduction
  • Closed Reduction and Internal Fixation
  • CRIF
  • Manipulative Reduction
  • Open Reduction and Internal Fixation
  • ORIF

Specialists

  • Hand Surgeon
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Orthopedic (Orthopaedic) Surgeon
  • Physiatrist (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Specialist)
  • Physical Therapist

Comorbid Conditions

  • Diabetes
  • Inflammatory conditions
  • Injury to muscles, nerves, and/or arteries
  • Neurologic conditions
  • Obesity
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Renal disease

Factors Influencing Duration

Type of injury, type of reduction, need for surgery, work requirements, extremity involved, and injury to a dominant hand or arm will affect duration of disability. Fractures heal less quickly and are more likely to change position (slip) as individuals age, requiring more extensive care. Some fractures heal more slowly and have a higher rate of non-union in smokers. Some dislocations, especially of shoulders and kneecaps (patellae), are more prone to repeat injury in younger individuals. Response to procedure, individual healing time based on health status (e.g., nutritional status, presence of chronic conditions such as diabetes or arthritis), and degree of compliance with after-care requirements can influence duration.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
03.53 - Repair of Vertebral Fracture; Elevation of Spinal Bone Fragments; Reduction of Fracture of Vertebrae; Removal of Bony Spicules from Spinal Canal
79.00 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Unspecified Site
79.02 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.03 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Carpals and Metacarpals, Hand NOS
79.04 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Hand
79.05 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Femur
79.06 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.07 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Tarsals and Metatarsals, Foot NOS
79.08 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Foot
79.09 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Other Specified Bone
79.10 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Unspecified Site
79.11 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Humerus
79.12 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.13 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Carpals and Metacarpals, Hand NOS
79.14 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Hand
79.15 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Femur
79.16 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.17 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Tarsals and Metatarsals, Foot NOS
79.18 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Foot
79.19 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Other Specified Bone
79.20 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Unspecified Site
79.21 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Humerus
79.22 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.23 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Carpals and Metacarpals, Hand NOS
79.24 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Hand
79.25 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Femur
79.26 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.27 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Tarsals and Metatarsals, Foot NOS
79.28 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Foot
79.29 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Other Specified Bone
79.30 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Unspecified Site
79.31 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Humerus
79.32 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.33 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Carpals and Metacarpals, Hand NOS
79.34 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Hand
79.35 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Femur
79.36 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.37 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Tarsals and Metatarsals, Foot NOS
79.38 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Foot
79.39 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Other Specified Bone
79.40 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Unspecified Site
79.41 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Humerus
79.42 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.45 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Femur
79.46 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.49 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Other Specified Bone
79.50 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Unspecified Site
79.51 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Humerus
79.52 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.55 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Femur
79.56 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.59 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Other Specified Bone
79.70 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Unspecified Site
79.71 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Shoulder
79.72 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Elbow
79.73 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Wrist
79.74 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Hand and Finger
79.75 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Hip
79.76 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Knee
79.77 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Ankle
79.78 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Foot and Toe
79.79 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Other Specified Sites
79.80 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Unspecified Site
79.81 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Shoulder
79.82 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Elbow
79.83 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Wrist
79.84 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Hand and Finger
79.85 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Hip
79.86 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Knee
79.87 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Ankle
79.88 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Foot and Toe
79.89 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Other Specified Sites

Prognosis

The outcome of a closed or open reduction depends on the type of injury and the treatment needed to maintain the reduction and achieve the healing of bone and supporting tissues (joint capsule, tendons, ligaments, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels). Generally, fractures and dislocations can be re-positioned (reduced) but this may not always be a simple, straightforward procedure. Once the reduction is complete, the healing phase may involve treatment over several months. Any complication regarding nerves or blood vessels will delay healing and may contribute to a poor outcome.

For fractures that involve joints (intra-articular fractures), the more multiple fracture fragments (comminuted fracture) affecting the joint surface and the greater joint surface deformity present after the fracture has healed, the worse the prognosis for the development of late post-traumatic arthritis of the joint. Fractures that do not involve joints but that heal with significant deformity change biomechanics of the limb and may lead to post-traumatic arthritis of adjacent joints.

Some bones such as those in the wrist (scaphoid and lunate) and hip (femoral head) have a poor blood supply to begin with and historically do not heal well. Individuals with loose tissue (laxity) have a higher incidence of recurrent dislocation, as do those with anatomical variations such as tilted kneecaps (patellar misalignment). Joints that remain dislocated for a long time have a less successful outcome.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






Feedback
Send us comments, suggestions, corrections, or anything you would like us to hear. If you are not logged in, you must include your email address, in order for us to respond. We cannot, unfortunately, respond to every comment. If you are seeking medical advice, please contact your physician. Thank you!
Send this comment to:
Sales Customer Support Content Development
 
This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is published with the understanding that the author, editors, and publisher are not engaged in rendering medical, legal, accounting or other professional service. If medical, legal, or other expert assistance is required, the service of a competent professional should be sought. We are unable to respond to requests for advice. Any Sales inquiries should include an email address or other means of communication.