Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Reduction of Fracture or Dislocation


Related Terms

  • Closed Reduction
  • Closed Reduction and Internal Fixation
  • CRIF
  • Manipulative Reduction
  • Open Reduction and Internal Fixation
  • ORIF

Specialists

  • Hand Surgeon
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Orthopedic (Orthopaedic) Surgeon
  • Physiatrist (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Specialist)
  • Physical Therapist

Comorbid Conditions

  • Diabetes
  • Inflammatory conditions
  • Injury to muscles, nerves, and/or arteries
  • Neurologic conditions
  • Obesity
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Renal disease

Factors Influencing Duration

Type of injury, type of reduction, need for surgery, work requirements, extremity involved, and injury to a dominant hand or arm will affect duration of disability. Fractures heal less quickly and are more likely to change position (slip) as individuals age, requiring more extensive care. Some fractures heal more slowly and have a higher rate of non-union in smokers. Some dislocations, especially of shoulders and kneecaps (patellae), are more prone to repeat injury in younger individuals. Response to procedure, individual healing time based on health status (e.g., nutritional status, presence of chronic conditions such as diabetes or arthritis), and degree of compliance with after-care requirements can influence duration.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
03.53 - Repair of Vertebral Fracture; Elevation of Spinal Bone Fragments; Reduction of Fracture of Vertebrae; Removal of Bony Spicules from Spinal Canal
79.00 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Unspecified Site
79.02 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.03 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Carpals and Metacarpals, Hand NOS
79.04 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Hand
79.05 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Femur
79.06 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.07 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Tarsals and Metatarsals, Foot NOS
79.08 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Foot
79.09 - Closed Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Other Specified Bone
79.10 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Unspecified Site
79.11 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Humerus
79.12 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.13 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Carpals and Metacarpals, Hand NOS
79.14 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Hand
79.15 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Femur
79.16 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.17 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Tarsals and Metatarsals, Foot NOS
79.18 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Foot
79.19 - Closed Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Other Specified Bone
79.20 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Unspecified Site
79.21 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Humerus
79.22 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.23 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Carpals and Metacarpals, Hand NOS
79.24 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Hand
79.25 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Femur
79.26 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.27 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Tarsals and Metatarsals, Foot NOS
79.28 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Foot
79.29 - Open Reduction of Fracture without Internal Fixation, Other Specified Bone
79.30 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Unspecified Site
79.31 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Humerus
79.32 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.33 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Carpals and Metacarpals, Hand NOS
79.34 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Hand
79.35 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Femur
79.36 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.37 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Tarsals and Metatarsals, Foot NOS
79.38 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Phalanges of Foot
79.39 - Open Reduction of Fracture with Internal Fixation, Other Specified Bone
79.40 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Unspecified Site
79.41 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Humerus
79.42 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.45 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Femur
79.46 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.49 - Closed Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Other Specified Bone
79.50 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Unspecified Site
79.51 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Humerus
79.52 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Radius and Ulna, Arm NOS
79.55 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Femur
79.56 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Tibia and Fibula, Leg NOS
79.59 - Open Reduction of Separated Epiphysis, Other Specified Bone
79.70 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Unspecified Site
79.71 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Shoulder
79.72 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Elbow
79.73 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Wrist
79.74 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Hand and Finger
79.75 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Hip
79.76 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Knee
79.77 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Ankle
79.78 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Foot and Toe
79.79 - Closed Reduction of Dislocation of Other Specified Sites
79.80 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Unspecified Site
79.81 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Shoulder
79.82 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Elbow
79.83 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Wrist
79.84 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Hand and Finger
79.85 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Hip
79.86 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Knee
79.87 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Ankle
79.88 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Foot and Toe
79.89 - Open Reduction of Dislocation of Other Specified Sites

Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

Work restrictions are variable. Restrictions may not be necessary or a reduction could require that work involving the injured part be temporarily eliminated from the individual's responsibilities. In some situations, surgery to stabilize a joint that could sustain repeated dislocation may be avoided or delayed by permanently stopping the at-risk activities.

Individuals with sedentary work requirements could possibly return to work more quickly if they can prevent swelling in the injured area. Those with lower extremity injuries may have difficulty both with sitting too long and moving or standing too much. Assistive devices for ambulation may restrict some workers from being able to perform their usual activities.

For metacarpal and hand/finger fractures, duration depends on whether dominant or non-dominant extremity is involved. In knee dislocation, residual instability and/or complications frequently preclude heavy or very heavy work.

For more information refer to "Work Ability and Return to Work," pages 241–245.

Risk: Risk is dependent on the cause of the fracture or dislocation.

Capacity: Capacity is determined by the location and fracture or dislocation and the degree of involvement or damage and associated structures.

Tolerance: Tolerance is affected by pain which is impacted by the capacity, which is determined by the location and fracture or dislocation and the degree of involvement.

Accommodations: Employers able to accommodate physical demands are more likely to have employees return to work sooner.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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