Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic Dependence


Related Terms

  • Antianxiety Drug Dependence
  • Barbiturate Dependence
  • Benzodiazepine Addiction
  • Prescription Drug Abuse
  • Prescription Drug Dependence
  • Tranquilizer Dependence

Differential Diagnosis

Specialists

  • Clinical Psychologist
  • Psychiatrist

Comorbid Conditions

Factors Influencing Duration

The following may influence the outcome: the individual's readiness to change, the severity of the abuse or dependence, the success of the treatment program, appropriate patient-treatment matching, stable history of employment, and the presence of any physical complications.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
304.10 - Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic Dependence; Unspecified
304.11 - Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic Dependence; Continuous
304.12 - Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic Dependence; Episodic
304.13 - Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic Dependence; in Remission

Diagnosis

History: According to the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision), criteria for the diagnosis of sedative dependence include sedative abuse, defined as a destructive pattern of sedative use, leading to significant social, occupational, or medical impairment. At least three of the following factors must have been present when the sedative use was at its worst: drug tolerance, withdrawal, or increased use (using larger amounts or over a longer period) than intended; unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control use; excessive time spent in use or in recovering from hangovers; reduction in social, occupational, or recreational activities because of use; and continued use despite knowing that it caused significant physical or psychological problems. Sedative tolerance is defined as the need for markedly increased amounts of drug for intoxication to occur, or markedly decreased effect with continued use of the same amount of sedative. Sedative withdrawal symptoms, which occur mainly with the long-acting barbiturates and tranquilizers, include two or more of the following symptoms which develop within several hours to a few days of decreased use: sweating or rapid pulse, increased hand shaking (tremor), sleeplessness (insomnia), nausea or vomiting, restlessness (physical agitation), anxiety, transient sensations of seeing, feeling or hearing something that isn't there (visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions), rapid or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia or palpitations), or major convulsions (grand mal seizures). The individual may also be considered to have sedative withdrawal if sedative is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The possibility of substance abuse or dependency needs to be considered in any situation in which the individual has consistent, ongoing, or deteriorating problems in the presence of continuing use. The clinician needs to develop sensitivity to the diagnostic clues of impairment of social, emotional, occupational, or psychological functioning. Individuals frequently deny that a problem exists despite obvious signs of intoxication.

Physical exam: Physical exam may reveal signs of sedative dependence or prolonged use, including decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure. Constant, involuntary, jerking movement of the eyeballs (nystagmus) is the single most useful finding seen in SHA dependence or intoxication. Physical signs of intoxication may include slurred speech; unsteady gait; loss of coordination; impaired thinking, memory, or attention; sluggishness; and tremor. Physical signs of withdrawal are hyperthermia, sweating, increased heart rate, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea9 or vomiting, transient hallucinations, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, or seizures. Characteristics of overdose include slow shallow breathing (respiratory depression), clammy skin, low blood pressure (hypotension), stupor, shock, and coma. Death can follow if the low blood pressure and respiratory depression are not treated.

Tests: A polydrug urine screen should be ordered in case the individual is using drugs other than sedatives. Levels of specific SHAs may also be determined. Both blood and urine samples may be used, but urine testing is generally the method of choice. A positive drug screen should always be confirmed by a second test, since it may result in serious consequences for the individual.

Additional tests are also recommended: blood for electrolyte disturbances, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, hypoxia, hypercarbia; neurologic studies such as CT, EEG, or MRI for identifying other causes of the patient's condition such as structural brain lesions or seizure activity; and examination of cerebrospinal fluid (lumbar puncture) if an infectious cause of the condition is being considered.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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