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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Sprains and Strains, Cervical Spine (Neck)


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Diagnosis

History: The individual may report a history of trauma (usually a fall) or accident, most commonly a motor vehicle collision. The individual may have had a contact sports injury or blow to the head from a falling object. A history of previous neck or spinal injury should be sought.

The location and severity of the pain should be documented. Headache, pain radiating into the shoulders, pain in the upper chest and back, and changes in sensation in the upper extremity or face can occur.

Other common symptoms may include headache, dizziness (vertigo), nausea, blurred or double vision, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), fatigue, restlessness, loss of libido, insomnia, pain in the jaw or temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and difficulty swallowing (dysphagia).

Physical exam: In any individual with acute neck sprain or strain, care must be taken during the examination to evaluate for possible spinal instability. Lateral cervical spine x-rays are often taken to rule out a fracture or dislocation before any neck motion is tested. If there is suspicion of fracture, then CT scan, MRI, or both may need to be obtained before the person's cervical spine is said to be “cleared” permitting evaluation of neck motion. Once fracture and dislocation are ruled out, range of motion may be tested by having the individual actively move the neck, and flexion-extension x-rays may then be taken. Swelling and tenderness may be present. The presence, location, and duration of any neurological exam findings (e.g. weakness, sensory changes, reflex changes) are noted. A neurological assessment of the upper and lower extremities is performed to assess possible nerve or spinal cord damage.

Tests: Cervical spine x-rays are taken to rule out more serious injury, but sprains and strains do not have findings on x-ray. Imaging studies (CT and/or MRI) may be warranted to evaluate soft tissue damage and to check for a cervical disc herniation. Tests may be repeated in 6 months if symptoms do not resolve. Objective findings of injury on routine imaging studies are usually uncommon.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor