Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Sprains and Strains, Lumbar Spine


Related Terms

  • Low Back Injury
  • Low Back Pain
  • Lumbar Strain
  • Lumbosacral Soft Tissue Injury

Differential Diagnosis

Specialists

  • Cardiologist, Cardiovascular Physician
  • Chiropractor
  • Occupational Medicine Specialist
  • Orthopedic (Orthopaedic) Surgeon
  • Physiatrist (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Specialist)
  • Physical Therapist
  • Sports Medicine Physician

Factors Influencing Duration

Duration is influenced by the severity of the initial pain and by the pain induced impairment in function, the individual's response to treatment, medical and psychiatric co-morbidity, current substance use disorders, use of opioid analgesics, and his or her job requirements and usual leisure activities.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
721.3 - Lumbosacral Spondylosis without Myelopathy; Arthritis; Osteoarthritis; Spondylarthritis
722.32 - Schmorls Nodes, Lumbar Region
722.93 - Disc Disorder, Other and Unspecified, Lumbar Region
724.2 - Lumbago; Low Back Pain; Low Back Syndrome; Lumbalgia
846.0 - Sprains and Strains of Sacroiliac Region, Lumbosacral Joint
846.1 - Sprains and Strains of Sacroiliac Region, Sacroiliac Ligament
846.2 - Sprains and Strains of Sacroiliac Region, Sacrospinatus (Ligament)
846.3 - Sprains and Strains of Sacroiliac Region, Sacrotuberous (Ligament)
846.8 - Sprains and Strains of Sacroiliac Region, Other Specified Sites
846.9 - Sprains and Strains of Sacroiliac Region, Unspecified Site
847.2 - Sprains and Strains of Other and Unspecified Parts of Back, Lumbar Spine
847.3 - Sprains and Strains of Other and Unspecified Parts of Back, Sacrum; Sacrococcygeal (Ligament)
847.4 - Sprains and Strains of Other and Unspecified Parts of Back, Coccyx
847.9 - Sprains and Strains of Other and Unspecified Parts of Back, Unspecified Site; Back NOS

References

Cited

Bakker, E. WP, et al. "Spinal Mechanical Load as a Risk Factor for Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies." Spine 34 (8) (2009): e281-e293.

Battié, M. C. , et al. "Genetic and Environmental Effects on Disc Degeneration by Phenotype and Spinal Level: A Multivariate Twin Study." Spine 33 (25) (2008): 2801-2808.

Bigos, S. J. , et al. "High-quality controlled trials on preventing episodes of back problems: systematic literature review in working-age adults." Spine Journal 9 (2009): 147-168.

Carey, T. S. , et al. "Recurrence and Care Seeking After Acute Back Pain: Results of a Long-Term Follow Up Study." Medical Care 37 (2) (1999): 149-156.

Carey, T. S., et al. "The Outcomes and Costs of Care for Acute Low Back Pain Among Patients Seen by Primary Care Practitioners, Chiropractors, and Orthopedic Surgeons." New England Journal of Medicine 333 (14) (1995): 913-917.

Carragee, E. J. , et al. "Activity Restriction After Posterior Lumbar Discectomy." Spine 24 (22) (1999): 2346-2351.

Carragee, E. , et al. "Are first-time episodes of serious LBP associated with new MRI findings? " Spine Journal 6 (2006): 624-635.

Carragee, E., et al. "Does Minor Trauma Cause Serious Low Back Pain Illness?" Spine 31 25 (2006): 2942-2949.

Cassidy, J. D. , et al. "The Saskatchewan health and back pain survey. The prevalence of low back pain and related disability in Saskatchewan adults." Spine 23 (1998): 1860-1866.

Chou, R. , et al. "Diagnostic Imaging for Low Back Pain: Advice for High-Value Health Care from the American College of Physicians." Annals of Internal Medicine 154 (2011): 181-189.

Deyo, R. A. , et al. "Back pain prevalence and visit rates." Spine 31 (2006): 2724-2727.

Franklin, G. M. , et al. "Early Opioid Prescription and Subsequent Disability Among Workers with Back Injuries." Spine 33 (2) (2008): 199-204.

Hegmann, K. T. , et al., eds. "Low Back Pain." Occupational Medicine Practice Guidelines: Evaluation and Management of Common Health Problems and Functional Recovery in Workers. Third ed. ACOEM, 2011. Chapter 8.

Main, C. J. , G. Waddell, and . "Behavioral Responses to Examination: A Reappraisal of the Interpretation of “Nonorganic Signs”." Spine 23 (21) (1998): 2367-2371.

Melhorn, J. Mark, and William Ackerman, eds. Disease and Injury Causation, Guides to the Evaluation of. AMA Press, 2008.

Modic, M. T. , N. A. Obushowski, and J. S. Ross. "Acute Low Back Pain and Radicuolopathy: MR Imaging Findings and Their Prognostic Role and Effect on Outcome." Radiology 237 (2005): 597-604.

Radebold, Andrea, et al. "Lumbosacral Spine Sprain/Strain Injuries." eMedicine. 8 Oct. 2012. Medscape. 25 Feb. 2013 <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/95444-overview>.

Talmage, J. B. , J. M. Melhorn, and M. H. Hyman, eds. Work Ability and Return to Work, AMA Guides to the Evaluation of. Second ed. Chicago: AMA Press, 2011.

Volinn, E. , J. D. Fargo, and P. G. Fine. "Opioid therapy for nonspecific low back pain and the outcome of chronic work loss." Pain 142 (2009): 194-201.

Webster, B. S. , et al. "Relationship Between Early Opioid Prescribing for Acute Occupational Low Back Pain and Disability Duration, Medical Costs, Subsequent Surgery, and Late Opioid Use." Spine 32 (19) (2007): 2127-2132.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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