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Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Toxic Effects, Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Solvents


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Overview

Hydrocarbons are organic compounds made primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms. The addition of chlorine to the carbon-hydrogen chemical backbone increases the stability and decreases the flammability of the resulting compounds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are a diverse group of compounds, some of which are widely used in industrial and leisure activities. Common chlorinated hydrocarbons include carbon tetrachloride, methylene chloride, and trichloroethylene. These solvents have characteristic slightly pungent odors. They are used extensively in industry as cleaning, degreasing, and thinning agents because of their excellent solvent properties and low flammability relative to other effective solvents. They are also used in the manufacture of other chemicals including plastics and pesticides. Because of their high volatility and low boiling point, workplace exposures may be greater than anticipated. At high temperatures, these substances may decompose to yield highly toxic gases such as phosgene and hydrogen chloride. They are commonly encountered as mixtures with variable toxicity depending on the concentration of individual constituents.

Carbon tetrachloride is used infrequently due to its relative potency as a liver and kidney toxin. Methylene chloride is a common constituent of paint strippers, is very volatile, and can accumulate substantial amounts in enclosed spaces. It is metabolized to a form of carbon monoxide that has a half life about 2.5 times longer than that produced by carbon monoxide inhalation. In a small number of people, trichloroethylene will produce "degreaser's flush," a transient reddening of the face and neck, which occurs when the individual consumes even small quantities of alcohol. Sometimes this reaction may also produce a sensation of fullness in the chest and breathlessness.

As a class, the chlorinated hydrocarbons are potent central nervous system depressants or stimulants. They also cause greater liver and kidney damage compared to other organic solvents. Many have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals; due to widespread industrial use, the issue of carcinogenic risk to humans is one of the most controversial issues in regulatory toxicology. The chlorinated hydrocarbons have been implicated in causing sudden death at high exposure levels possibly related to the development of heart arrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation).

Exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds in the occupational setting is primarily through inhalation. Skin absorption is variable and usually insignificant, although dermal absorption following prolonged or extensive skin contact can cause systemic toxicity.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor