Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Upper Respiratory Infection


Related Terms

  • Acute Coryza
  • Cold
  • Common Cold
  • Rhinitis
  • Upper Respiratory Bacterial Infection
  • Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
  • URI
  • URTI
  • Viral Pharyngitis

Differential Diagnosis

  • Certain allergic reactions
  • Inflammation
  • Influenza
  • Parasitic infection

Comorbid Conditions

  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Hematologic disorder
  • Immune system disorders, immunosuppression
  • Systemic conditions of lung, heart, genitourinary tract, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal tracts

Factors Influencing Duration

Length of disability is dependent on the type and severity of the infection, any underlying disease or complications, the type of treatment, and the individual's response to treatment.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
465.0 - Acute Laryngopharyngitis
465.8 - Upper Respiratory Infection, Acute, of Multiple or Unspecified Sites; Other Multiple Sites; Multiple URI
465.9 - Upper Respiratory Infection, Acute, of Multiple or Unspecified Sites; Unspecified Site

Overview

An upper respiratory infection (URI) is a viral or bacterial infection that affects the upper respiratory tract (nose, throat [pharynx], sinuses, and voice box [larynx]); these are the most common of all illnesses. The most familiar upper respiratory infections include the common cold (rhinopharyngitis), infection of the throat (pharyngitis), tonsils (tonsillitis), the maxillary sinuses behind the nose (sinusitis), and the larynx (laryngitis). Ear infections (acute otitis media) are another manifestation of URI. A more serious upper respiratory infection is epiglottitis, an inflammation of the upper portion of the larynx and supraglottic area. Influenza is a systemic viral illness that can affect the air passages in the head and neck, and in the chest (bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli), and must be differentiated from other URI. For more information, see Cold, Pharyngitis, Acute Sinusitis, or Influenza.

Incidence and Prevalence: Overall incidence of infection by various organisms at various sites is not determined; incidence of infection may be determined according to the specific causative pathogen, type of infection, or the organ system affected. However, URI is the most common illness in humans, and when complicated may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In developing countries, complicated URI are a leading cause of death in children under 5 (Fendrick).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Causation and Known Risk Factors

Injury, surgery, chronic illness, and a weakened immune system (immune system compromise or immunosuppression) can increase risk for infection. The very young and the elderly are at increased risk compared to the rest of the population because their immune systems are weakened and less able to respond effectively. Viruses are the cause about 90% of all URI. Influenza accounts for 9% of all URI, and 13% of URIs that lead to physician visits (Fendrick).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Prognosis

The mean duration of an episode of URI is 7.4 days with 25% of the cases lasting 2 weeks. The illness is responsible for approximately 20 million lost work days and 21 million lost school days per year in the U.S. (Fendrick).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Complications

An infection also can spread beyond the local area of involvement and into the lower respiratory tract or the bloodstream, causing potentially fatal pneumonia, sepsis, or bacteremia.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

Accommodations may include time off from work to allow the individual to rest and prevent transmission of infection to coworkers and to the public. Restrictions will vary depending on the nature of the infection and the job requirements of the individual.

Risk: In an immune compromised individual, working with heavy public contact, indigent or incarcerated populations, or in health care settings may place the individual at increased risk of further or recurrent infection. A person with symptom onset within the last 24 to48 hours is at a more infectious state and should avoid working in settings with immune compromised individuals. Some risk can be mitigated by frequent hand washing, gloves, or masks.

Capacity: During active infection, capacity will be reduced related to the type and severity.

Tolerance: Milder infections may be managed with over the counter analgesics, which may permit an earlier return to work in recovering individuals.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

Cited

Fendrick, A. M. , et al. "The Economic Burden of Non-Influenza-Related Viral Respiratory Tract Infection in the United States." Archives of Internal Medicine 163 (2003): 487-494.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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