Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Uveitis


Related Terms

  • Cyclitis
  • Inflammation of Uvea
  • Pars Planitis

Specialists

  • Ophthalmologist
  • Rheumatologist

Comorbid Conditions

  • Connective tissue disorders
  • Gastrointestinal disorders
  • Immune system disorders
  • Neurologic conditions
  • Rheumatologic disorders

Factors Influencing Duration

The type of treatment, the individual's response to treatment, the presence of complications, recurrence, and the underlying cause of the condition may determine the length of disability.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
364.00 - Iridocyclitis, Acute or Subacute, Unspecified
364.01 - Primary Iridocyclitis
364.02 - Recurrent Iridocyclitis
364.03 - Secondary Iridocyclitis, Infectious
364.04 - Secondary Iridocyclitis, Noninfectious; Cells; Fibrin; Flare
364.10 - Iridocyclitis, Chronic, Unspecified
364.23 - Uveitis, Lens-induced

Overview

Uveitis is an inflammation involving the uvea, which includes the iris anteriorly, the ciliary body, and the choroid posteriorly.

When inflammation occurs in a portion of the uveal tract that includes the circular, colored area of the front of the eye (iris) surrounding the dark pupil, it may be called iritis or anterior uveitis. Uveitis in this location is more likely to be associated with immune system disorders.

A form of uveitis called cyclitis occurs with inflammation in a portion of the uveal tract where fluid (aqueous humor) is formed and muscular contractions controlling the lens focus take place (ciliary body). When inflammation occurs in a certain, specific zone of the ciliary body, it becomes another form of uveitis called pars planitis.

A third major portion of the uveal tract where uveitis may occur is in the inner back of the globe where most of the eye's major vessels are concentrated (choroid). Uveitis in this part of the uveal tract is sometimes known as choroiditis or posterior uveitis and is likely to be associated with a general (systemic) infection. If inflammation involves both the choroid and retina, this form of uveitis may be called chorioretinitis.

Uveitis may be linked to any of a number of factors, including general (systemic) infections, injury, inflammation associated with other diseases, inherited tendencies, and/or immune system disorders. Uveitis may be associated with conditions such as syphilis, widespread inflammation (Reiter's syndrome), inflammatory bowel disease, tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis, inflammation of body tissue (sarcoidosis), systemic lupus erythematosus, AIDS, cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, toxoplasmosis, inflammatory disorder (Behçet's disease), herpes zoster, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and skin disease (psoriasis). In many cases, a cause for uveitis cannot be found.

One or both eyes (bilateral) may be affected. The least serious form of the disease is often related to an injury or immune response (nongranulomatous uveitis). Infection or general (systemic) disease can result in more serious forms of uveitis (granulomatous uveitis).

Incidence and Prevalence: Uveitis affects about 1 in every 1,000 people (Cunningham).

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Causation and Known Risk Factors

Individuals with a family history of uveitis may be more likely to develop the condition.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Diagnosis

History: Depending on what part of the eye is affected, the individual may report blurred vision, floating spots in the visual field, sensitivity to light (photophobia), tearing, and pain. Because many uveitis cases are linked to immune disorders or diseases in other parts of the body, the individual's overall health should be assessed.

Physical exam: In the anterior portion of the eye, cloudy fluids (aqueous flare and white or red blood cells) and an inflamed or swollen iris may indicate uveitis. A small, irregular pupil with decreased light response is another common finding. Decreased visual acuity may also be detected. Sensitivity to light directed into the eye may also be a symptom of the disease.

Tests: An examination of the eye's interior with a lighted instrument (ophthalmoscope) and especially a biomicroscope (slit lamp) may reveal swelling, abrasions, particles, or a flare-like effect in fluids, indicating uveitis. Pressure within the eye (intraocular pressure) may be measured (tonometry). Other tests may be indicated to identify possible underlying disease.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Treatment

The cause of the uveitis (if known) helps determine treatment. Eye drops that dilate the pupil (cycloplegics) may be needed to move the pupil and help prevent adhesions or scarring involving the iris pupillary border and the eye's natural lens. Corticosteroids may be needed to decrease inflammation but should be used cautiously to avoid increases in intraocular pressure. Some types of uveitis may require treatment with medications that suppress immune responses (immunosuppressive agents). In extreme cases, surgical intervention, such as removal (vitrectomy) of the eye's interior gel-like substance (vitreous) may be necessary because of clouding (opacity) due to bleeding caused by underlying conditions. Inflammation accompanying ongoing (chronic) cases of uveitis often causes clouding of the eye's natural lens (cataracts), requiring surgical removal. Follow-up examinations are essential in acute cases of uveitis.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Prognosis

If the condition is treated early, visual problems may be avoided. Complications can cause mild to severe permanent changes of vision. Uveitis may recur even if treated promptly or persist in its chronic state for months or years. Less serious forms of the disease may clear up in a few days or weeks.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Complications

Uveitis may result in the iris permanently adhering to the cornea or lens (anterior or posterior synechiae), clouding of the eye fluids (aqueous or vitreous humor), glaucoma, damaged or detached retina, and cataracts. Infections may spread to other areas of the eye. Complications may also lead to a rise in intraocular pressure that can damage the optic nerve and create permanent vision loss.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

Eye drops may need to be applied during the workday. Individual may need time off from work for frequent eye exams until condition is resolved. With the resolution of acute uveitis, there usually are no restrictions or accommodations. Chronic uveitis, along with permanent vision impairment, may preclude a return to previous duties if keen visual acuity is a job requirement. Individual may need special accommodations, such as increased magnification and illumination at work station.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Failure to Recover

If an individual fails to recover within the expected maximum duration period, the reader may wish to consider the following questions to better understand the specifics of an individual's medical case.

Regarding diagnosis:

  • Does individual have any systemic diseases such as infection or immune disorders? Any ocular injuries?
  • Were one or both eyes affected?
  • Does individual report blurred vision, sensitivity to light, tearing, and pain?
  • On exam, did physician find cloudy fluids, a red or swollen iris, a small irregular pupil with decreased light response, or decreased visual acuity?
  • Was inflammation present in the limbus?
  • Were yellow, white, and gray patches seen in the area of the retina?
  • Was an ophthalmoscope exam performed? Did exam reveal swelling, abrasions, particles, or a flare-like effect in fluids? Is individual sensitive to light directed into the eye? Was tonometry done?
  • Were conditions with similar symptoms ruled out?

Regarding treatment:

  • Were eye drops containing cycloplegics used on individual? Are corticosteroids being used?
  • Is individual attending follow-up appointments with the doctor?

Regarding prognosis:

  • Is individual's employer able to accommodate any necessary adaptations in the workplace?
  • Does individual have any conditions that may affect ability to recover?
  • Does individual have any complications, such as the iris permanently adhering to the cornea or lens, clouding of the aqueous or vitreous humor, glaucoma, damaged or detached retinas or cataracts?
  • Did infection spread to other areas of the eye?
  • Did individual have a rise in intraocular pressure that damaged the optic nerve and created permanent vision loss?

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

Cited

Cunningham, Emmett T. "Uveitis Update." Ophthalmology Clinics of North America 15 3 (2002): 1-1.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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