Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Job Classification

In most duration tables, five job classifications are displayed. These job classifications are based on the amount of physical effort required to perform the work. The classifications correspond to the Strength Factor classifications described in the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The following definitions are quoted directly from that publication.

Sedentary Work Exerting up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force occasionally and/or a negligible amount of force frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the human body. Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief periods of time. Jobs are sedentary if walking and standing are required only occasionally and other sedentary criteria are met.

Light Work Exerting up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force occasionally and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of force frequently, and/or negligible amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demand requirements are in excess of those for Sedentary Work. Light Work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree. However, if the use of the arm and/or leg controls requires exertion of forces greater than that for Sedentary Work and the worker sits most the time, the job is rated Light Work.

Medium Work Exerting up to 50 (22.7 kg) pounds of force occasionally, and/or up to 25 pounds (11.3 kg) of force frequently, and/or up to 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of forces constantly to move objects.

Heavy Work Exerting up to 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

Very Heavy Work Exerting in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of force constantly to move objects.

X-ray


Related Terms

  • Angiography
  • Cineradiography
  • Computed Radiography
  • Digital Radiography
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Interventional Radiography
  • Mammography
  • Plain X-Rays
  • Radiography
  • Tomography

Specialists

  • Hand Surgeon
  • Orthopedic Surgeon
  • Radiologist
  • Rheumatologist
  • Surgeon

Factors Influencing Duration

The underlying condition for which radiography is done influences the length of disability.

Medical Codes

ICD-9-CM:
88.39 - X-ray, Other and Unspecified

Overview

Radiography is a diagnostic procedure in which electromagnetic radiation (x-rays) is used to visualize the interior anatomy of the body. X-rays are beamed through the body and hit a recording medium on the other side. Images form because different tissues absorb x-rays differently as they pass through the body. For example, spaces containing air are darker, and solid structures like bones are lighter. This is because the air absorbs fewer x-rays than does the bone. The recording medium may be a film similar to photographic film, producing a still picture (plain x-rays), or it can involve electronic detection of the x-rays, producing a live (real-time) moving display on a TV monitor.

Radiography is most commonly done as plain film radiography (plain x-rays). Since x-rays penetrate straight through the body, structures that overlap each other often cannot be seen clearly with a single plain x-ray. Two or three views taken from different angles may help the radiologist determine the relationship of different structures.

Tomography is a special technique that provides greater detail by taking serial cross-sectional x-rays. In computed tomography (CT), these images are synthesized by computer to provide a more detailed picture of the interior anatomy. Other special radiography techniques include angiography, mammography, fluoroscopy, interventional radiography, cineradiography, and digital radiography.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Reason for Procedure

Radiography is widely used for medical imaging to visualize abnormalities of the lungs, heart, bones, and soft tissues. Radiography has been used for over 100 years, and it can be done at relatively low cost. Mammography involves specialized equipment designed to detect small breast tumors.

Angiography is a way to detect disease in an artery or an abnormality in the organs it supplies. It is done by injecting a special opaque dye directly into the circulatory system. X-ray images in motion (fluoroscopy) can be done in order to find abnormalities in the esophagus or stomach. Cineradiography can take high-speed x-ray pictures to detect abnormalities of swallowing, movements of the heart, or to closely follow an injection of contrast dye through an artery. Interventional radiography is used in treatment procedures such as percutaneous coronary transluminal angioplasty (PTCA), which is designed to open up clogged coronary arteries. Such procedures have fewer complications, decrease the need for more invasive surgery, and are less expensive than comparable surgical procedures.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



How Procedure is Performed

Plain x-rays take only minutes to perform and cause no discomfort to the individual. The level of radiation exposure from a single film is negligible. Real-time images, such as those produced by fluoroscopy or angiography, may take longer and involve higher levels of radiation.

Prior to an x-ray procedure, the individual is asked to remove any jewelry or clothing that may interfere with a clear image. An x-ray technician will instruct the individual to stand, sit, or lie down in order to place the appropriate body part between the x-ray beam and the film plate. In some cases, individuals may be required to wear a lead apron to shield adjacent body parts from radiation. During the x-ray procedure, the individual is asked to hold his or her breath and remain still for several seconds to avoid blurring of the image. Following the procedure, a radiologist views the films to determine if additional x-rays are necessary, and prepares a report documenting the findings.

Images may be taken in a hospital x-ray department, by mobile units at the bedside or in an operating room, or in facilities outside the hospital. Many office settings have small radiography units.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Prognosis

Radiography is a diagnostic tool. The outcome depends on the underlying condition.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Complications

Excessive exposure to x-rays can permanently damage organs such as the ovaries and testes, eyes, and thyroid gland. X-ray exposure can also increase the risk of cancer. This risk is minimized by focusing and limiting the x-ray beam, as well as shielding the sensitive organs, when possible. X-rays are harmful to the fetus, and any woman of childbearing age should be tested for pregnancy if there is even a small possibility that she is pregnant.

Occasionally, there are adverse reactions to x-ray contrast media. These range from a transient flushing to a drop in blood pressure and heart rate to a life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis). Barium sulfate, a contrast material used to visualize the gastrointestinal tract, can leak into the abdominal cavity if a perforation of the intestine is present, creating a serious inflammation (peritonitis). With arteriography, bleeding from the arterial puncture site can occur, as can damage to the artery itself.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Ability to Work (Return to Work Considerations)

The ability to work is dependent on the condition for which the X-ray may help in providing the diagnosis. The X-ray does not interfere with voluntary function. Therefore, the individual's ability to perform tasks is dependent upon the underlying condition and the limitations that result because of that condition.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



Maximum Medical Improvement

0 days.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor



References

General

Schwartz, Seymour, ed. Principles of Surgery. New York City: McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Source: Medical Disability Advisor






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