Reed Group DisabilityGuidelines™ (powered by MDGuidelines and ACOEM) is your one-stop portal for return-to-work and treatment guidelines!

Content Sources

Medical Disability Advisor (MDA)
American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Practice Guidelines (ACOEM APGi)
ACOEM Practice Guidelines Version 3 (ACOEM V3)


ACOEM version 3: ICD-9/10-CM to CPT®
California MTUS: ICD-9/10-CM to CPT®
Colorado: ICD-9/10-CM to CPT®
Louisiana: ICD-9/10-CM to CPT®
Montana: ICD-9/10-CM to CPT®
New York: ICD-9/10-CM to CPT®

State Guidelines

California (MTUS)
Colorado Treatment Guidelines
Connecticut Treatment Guidelines External Link
Delaware Treatment Guidelines External Link
Kentucky Treatment Guidelines External Link
Louisiana Treatment Guidelines
Maine Treatment Guidelines External Link
Massachusetts Treatment Guidelines External Link
Minnesota Treatment Guidelines External Link
Mississippi Treatment Guidelines External Link
Montana Treatment Guidelines External Link
New York Treatment Guidelines
Rhode Island Treatment Guidelines External Link
South Dakota Treatment Guidelines External Link
VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines
Washington Treatment Guidelines
West Virginia Treatment Guidelines External Link
Wisconsin Treatment Guidelines External Link

Indexes for Medical Disability Advisor

Anatomical Regions (MDA)
Diagnostic Categories (MDA)
Medical Specialists (MDA)
ICD-9-CM Codes
Job Titles
Leave of Absence Advisor

Welcome to Reed Group DisabilityGuidelines™!

When Presley Reed, MD first envisioned these seminal guidelines as "presenting common standards that can be shared by doctors, patients, and employers," the World Wide Web was impossible to foresee. Today, the internet provides the fundamental communication platform to realize Dr. Reed’s original vision.

With Reed Group DisabilityGuidelines™, we introduce The Medical Disability Advisor and ACOEM as the basis for a growing collection of content and tools that we consider vital to all stakeholders in the return to work process. We have many goals for this site: to infuse occupational medicine into the mainstream of physician education and practice; to provide innovative tools


Meet Our Medical Advisory Board

Reed Group's Medical Advisory Board members are among the foremost contributors to the current knowledge in occupational medicine.


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Foreword to The Medical Disability Advisor (version 7)

The Medical Disability Advisor, now a part of the DisabilityGuidelines suite, provides the disability-duration guidelines. The first six editions of The Medical Disability Advisor have established it as the best known, most used, and most accurate data source for esimtating disability duration, and thus return to work time for many diseases and injuries. The new version 7 improves further on this established product by adding additional sections on Risk, Capacity, and Tolerance, both in the clinical text and, at times, below the disability duration tables. In addition, the usual re-inspection and revision of the medical topics, along with their durations, have been performed.

Probably the best model to use in considering an individual's readiness for return to work involves the consideration of "risk," "capacity," and "tolerance." (1)

"Risk" is a basis for physician-imposed activity restrictions. Most return-to-work forms sent to physicians have a line on which the physician can state "restrictions" that may pose a risk to the individual or to others (e.g. co-workers, the general motoring public, etc.). Risk, in this regard, means the person should not do something, even though he/she may actually be capable of doing the activity. For example, individuals with uncontrolled seizure disorders are not permitted to work as commercial airline pilots or bus drivers based on risk. The concept of "risk" most closely conforms to the "Minimum" column of disability duration in the consensus tables in this edition.

"Capacity" is the basis for physician described activity limitations, and means the individual is not yet physically capable of an activity. Many of the return to work forms sent to physicians have a line on which the physician can state "limitations" based on capacity evaluation. For example, after a wound into the biceps muscle mass of the arm, an individual may not yet have the strength to permit lifting a certain amount of weight; or after a fracture of the shoulder, an individual may not yet have enough shoulder motion for his/her hand to reach the overhead control on a factory press. In the disability duration tables the "Optimum" column indicates when the average person with the average speed of recovery and few comorbidities will return to work.

"Tolerance" is the issue with which doctors, employers, employees, and insurers struggle. Tolerance is the ability to put up with the symptoms (like pain or fatigue) that accompany doing work tasks in order to gain the rewards of work (income, self-esteem, health benefits of work, etc.). Tolerance means the ability to tolerate the symptoms produced by doing an activity the individual clearly can do. Tolerance is not a scientific concept, and tolerance is not scientifically measurable. Early after major injury or surgery physicians have fair agreement on work guidelines based in tolerance issues, but for chronic problems studies have shown physicians cannot agree on work guidelines based in tolerance issues. People (patients) consider factors like income and finances, job satisfaction, need for employer provided health insurance benefits, availability of disability or workers’ compensation insurance to maintain income, ability to switch to physically easier careers, etc. when deciding whether the rewards of working are to them worth the "cost" of working.

This method, which effectively brings into consideration the main elements that involve work loss, works well in conjunction with the MDA disability duration tables.

The "Maximum" column of the disability duration table reflects current physician consensus of what the vast majority of individuals will tolerate. From the data set of actual observed durations, probably 90% or more of individuals have already returned to work by the time listed in the "Maximum" column. There will be some individuals who will not return to work in their prior career because of risk (e.g. heavy work with avascular necrosis of the femoral head), and some who permanently lack the capacity for their former career (e.g., heavy work after a major heart attack that caused permanent congestive heart failure). Cases of this type will also be in the category of those who have not yet returned to their prior careers at the date listed in the "Maximum" column. Thus, for those who seem to have the capacity to return to their prior career with no serious risk issues, but have yet to return to work by the "Maximum" date listed, either multiple and serious co-morbidities, unusually low symptom tolerance, or malingering would logically be present. Thus physicians, employers and insurers would want to look closely at cases nearing the "Maximum" disability duration.

There is a large and growing body of scientific evidence that return to work usually provides significant overall health benefit, and staying off work needlessly results in poorer overall health outcomes.(2) Thus, employers, employees (patients), and insurers all benefit from individuals returning to work in usual time periods.

As medical care improves, the disability durations for many conditions have shortened, and this is reflected in the current revisions to the consensus tables, as well as in the data sets that helped influence the revisions. This is particularly noticeable in the case of minimally invasive surgery (e.g. arthroscopic surgery instead of open joint surgery, laparoscopic surgery instead of open abdominal surgery, etc.).

1. Talmage JB, Melhorn JM. A Physician’s Guide to Return to Work. AMA Press, Chicago, 2005
2. Waddell GA, Burton AK. Is Work Good for Your Health and Well Being? The Stationery Office, London, 2006

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Revised Topics
  1. Abdominal Adhesions
  2. Angina Pectoris
  3. Angina, Unstable
  4. Angiocardiography
  5. Arthralgia
  6. Arthrodesis
  7. Arthrography
  8. Arthropathy
  9. Arthroscopy
  10. Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis
  11. Atrial Fibrillation
  12. Biopsy
  13. Bone Graft
  14. Calculus, Renal and Ureter
  15. Cancer, Breast
  16. Cancer, Lung
  17. Cardiac Arrest
  18. Cardiomyopathy
  19. Carpal Tunnel Release
  20. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  21. Cervical Disc Disorder with Myelopathy
  22. Colorado Tick Fever
  23. Cor Pulmonale, Acute and Chronic
  24. Coronary Atherosclerosis
  25. Coronary Balloon Angioplasty
  26. Coronary Bypass
  27. De Quervain's Release
  28. Degeneration, Cervical Intervertebral Disc
  29. Degeneration, Lumbar Intervertebral Disc
  30. Degeneration, Thoracic or Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disc
  31. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
  32. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
  33. Diabetes with Peripheral Circulatory Disorders
  34. Diabetic Glomerulosclerosis
  35. Diabetic Neuropathy
  36. Dilation of Esophagus
  37. Dislocation, Acromioclavicular Joint
  38. Dislocation, Glenohumeral
  39. Dislocation, Sternoclavicular Joint
  40. Displacement, Cervical Intervertebral Disc Without Myelopathy
  41. Dupuytren's Contracture
  42. Dupuytren's Release
  43. Epicondylitis, Medial and Lateral
  44. Esophageal Spasm
  45. Esophageal Strictures
  46. Esophageal Varices
  47. Esophagitis
  48. Fracture, Fingers and Thumb
  49. Fracture, Metacarpal Bones
  50. Fracture, Radius and Ulna, Distal
  51. Fracture, Radius, Proximal
  52. Gastroesophageal Reflux
  53. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
  54. Heart Failure, Congestive
  55. Hepatitis A
  56. Hepatitis B
  57. Hepatitis C
  58. Hepatitis, Alcoholic
  59. Hepatitis, Chronic
  60. Hepatitis, Viral
  61. Hodgkin's Disease
  62. Impingement Syndrome
  63. Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  64. Knee Replacement, Total
  65. Leukemia
  66. Myeloid Leukemia
  67. Myocardial Infarction, Acute
  68. Neck Pain
  69. Neuropathy of Radial Nerve (Entrapment)
  70. Neuropathy of Ulnar Nerve (Entrapment)
  71. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
  72. Obesity
  73. Pain in Limb
  74. Peripheral Vascular Disease
  75. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  76. Pyelonephritis, Acute
  77. Pyelonephritis, Chronic
  78. Pyuria
  79. Renal Dialysis
  80. Renal Failure, Acute
  81. Renal Failure, Chronic
  82. Repair (Reconstruction), Anterior Cruciate Ligament
  83. Repair, Tendon Laceration of Hand
  84. Rotator Cuff Repair
  85. Rotator Cuff Syndrome
  86. Rotator Cuff Tear
  87. Sclerotherapy
  88. Splenectomy
  89. Sprains and Strains, Cervical Spine (Neck)
  90. Sprains and Strains, Elbow
  91. Sprains and Strains, Hand or Fingers
  92. Sprains and Strains, Knee
  93. Sprains and Strains, Lumbar Spine
  94. Sprains and Strains, Rotator Cuff (Capsule)
  95. Sprains and Strains, Wrist
  96. Strains, Biceps Tendon
  97. Tendinitis
  98. Transfer of Nerve, Ulnar (Transposition)
  99. Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex (TFCC) Tears
  100. Trigger Finger or Thumb